Achtung, Sie haben das Ende Ihrer Jugend erreicht (German Edition)
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Yet she must have been pretty and shapely once. What corrosive had destroyed the feminine outlines? Was it trouble, or vice, or greed? Had she loved too well? Had she been a second-hand clothes dealer, a frequenter of the backstairs of great houses, or had she been merely a courtesan?
Was she expiating the flaunting triumphs of a youth overcrowded with pleasures by an old age in which she was shunned by every passer-by? Her vacant gaze sent a chill through you; her shriveled face seemed like a menace. Her voice was like the shrill, thin note of the grasshopper sounding from the thicket when winter is at hand.
She said that she had nursed an old gentleman, ill of catarrh of the bladder, and left to die by his children, who thought that he had nothing left. His bequest to her, a life annuity of a thousand francs, was periodically disputed by his heirs, who mingled slander with their persecutions. In spite of the ravages of conflicting passions, her face retained some traces of its former fairness and fineness of tissue, some vestiges of the physical charms of her youth still survived. Poiret was a sort of automaton.
He might be seen any day sailing like a gray shadow along the walks of the Jardin des Plantes, on his head a shabby cap, a cane with an old yellow ivory handle in the tips of his thin fingers; the outspread skirts of his threadbare overcoat failed to conceal his meagre figure; his breeches hung loosely on his shrunken limbs; the thin, blue-stockinged legs trembled like those of a drunken man; there was a notable breach of continuity between the dingy white waistcoat and crumpled shirt frills and the cravat twisted about a throat like a turkey gobbler's; altogether, his appearance set people wondering whether this outlandish ghost belonged to the audacious race of the sons of Japhet who flutter about on the Boulevard Italien.
What devouring kind of toil could have so shriveled him? What devouring passions had darkened that bulbous countenance, which would have seemed outrageous as a caricature? What had he been? Well, perhaps he had been part of the machinery of justice, a clerk in the office to which the executioner sends in his accounts,--so much for providing black veils for parricides, so much for sawdust, so much for pulleys and cord for the knife. Or he might have been a receiver at the door of a public slaughter-house, or a sub-inspector of nuisances. Indeed, the man appeared to have been one of the beasts of burden in our great social mill; one of those Parisian Ratons whom their Bertrands do not even know by sight; a pivot in the obscure machinery that disposes of misery and things unclean; one of those men, in short, at sight of whom we are prompted to remark that, "After all, we cannot do without them.
Ihre grau und schwarzen Augen hatten einen sanften Ausdruck und spiegelten christliche Entsagung. Stately Paris ignores the existence of these faces bleached by moral or physical suffering; but, then, Paris is in truth an ocean that no line can plumb. You may survey its surface and describe it; but no matter how numerous and painstaking the toilers in this sea, there will always be lonely and unexplored regions in its depths, caverns unknown, flowers and pearls and monsters of the deep overlooked or forgotten by the divers of literature.
The Maison Vauquer is one of these curious monstrosities. Two, however, of Mme. Vauquer's boarders formed a striking contrast to the rest. There was a sickly pallor, such as is often seen in anaemic girls, in Mlle. Victorine Taillefer's face; and her unvarying expression of sadness, like her embarrassed manner and pinched look, was in keeping with the general wretchedness of the establishment in the Rue Nueve-Saint-Genevieve, which forms a background to this picture; but her face was young, there was youthfulness in her voice and elasticity in her movements. This young misfortune was not unlike a shrub, newly planted in an uncongenial soil, where its leaves have already begun to wither.
The outlines of her figure, revealed by her dress of the simplest and cheapest materials, were also youthful. There was the same kind of charm about her too slender form, her faintly colored face and light-brown hair, that modern poets find in mediaeval statuettes; and a sweet expression, a look of Christian resignation in the dark gray eyes. She was pretty by force of contrast; if she had been happy, she would have been charming.
Happiness is the poetry of woman, as the toilette is her tinsel. If the delightful excitement of a ball had made the pale face glow with color; if the delights of a luxurious life had brought the color to the wan cheeks that were slightly hollowed already; if love had put light into the sad eyes, then Victorine might have ranked among the fairest; but she lacked the two things which create woman a second time--pretty dresses and love-letters. In Wuchs und Manieren, in Haltung und Auftreten erkannte man den Sohn aus adligem Hause, wo schon die erste Erziehung auf Tradition des guten Geschmacks aufgebaut wird.
A book might have been made of her story. Her father was persuaded that he had sufficient reason for declining to acknowledge her, and allowed her a bare six hundred francs a year; he had further taken measures to disinherit his daughter, and had converted all his real estate into personalty, that he might leave it undivided to his son. Victorine's mother had died broken-hearted in Mme. Couture's house; and the latter, who was a near relation, had taken charge of the little orphan. Unluckily, the widow of the commissary-general to the armies of the Republic had nothing in the world but her jointure and her widow's pension, and some day she might be obliged to leave the helpless, inexperienced girl to the mercy of the world.
The good soul, therefore, took Victorine to mass every Sunday, and to confession once a fortnight, thinking that, in any case, she would bring up her ward to be devout. She was right; religion offered a solution of the problem of the young girl's future. The poor child loved the father who refused to acknowledge her. Once every year she tried to see him to deliver her mother's message of forgiveness, but every year hitherto she had knocked at that door in vain; her father was inexorable. Her brother, her only means of communication, had not come to see her for four years, and had sent her no assistance; yet she prayed to God to unseal her father's eyes and to soften her brother's heart, and no accusations mingled with her prayers.
Couture and Mme. Vauquer exhausted the vocabulary of abuse, and failed to find words that did justice to the banker's iniquitous conduct; but while they heaped execrations on the millionaire, Victorine's words were as gentle as the moan of the wounded dove, and affection found expression even in the cry drawn from her by pain.
Eugene de Rastignac was a thoroughly southern type; he had a fair complexion, blue eyes, black hair. In his figure, manner, and his whole bearing it was easy to see that he had either come of a noble family, or that, from his earliest childhood, he had been gently bred. If he was careful of his wardrobe, only taking last year's clothes into daily wear, still upon occasion he could issue forth as a young man of fashion.
Ordinarily he wore a shabby coat and waistcoat, the limp black cravat, untidily knotted, that students affect, trousers that matched the rest of his costume, and boots that had been resoled. Vautrin the man of forty with the dyed whiskers marked a transition stage between these two young people and the others. He was the kind of man that calls forth the remark: "He looks a jovial sort! His face was furrowed by premature wrinkles; there was a certain hardness about it in spite of his bland and insinuating manner.
His bass voice was by no means unpleasant, and was in keeping with his boisterous laughter. He was always obliging, always in good spirits; if anything went wrong with one of the locks, he would soon unscrew it, take it to pieces, file it, oil and clean and set it in order, and put it back in its place again; "I am an old hand at it," he used to say.
Not only so, he knew all about ships, the sea, France, foreign countries, men, business, law, great houses and prisons, --there was nothing that he did not know. If any one complained rather more than usual, he would offer his services at once. He had several times lent money to Mme. Vauquer, or to the boarders; but, somehow, those whom he obliged felt that they would sooner face death than fail to repay him; a certain resolute look, sometimes seen on his face, inspired fear of him, for all his appearance of easy good-nature.
In the way he spat there was an imperturbable coolness which seemed to indicate that this was a man who would not stick at a crime to extricate himself from a false position. His eyes, like those of a pitiless judge, seemed to go to the very bottom of all questions, to read all natures, all feelings and thoughts. His habit of life was very regular; he usually went out after breakfast, returning in time for dinner, and disappeared for the rest of the evening, letting himself in about midnight with a latch key, a privilege that Mme.
Vauquer accorded to no other boarder. But then he was on very good terms with the widow; he used to call her "mamma," and put his arm round her waist, a piece of flattery perhaps not appreciated to the full! The worthy woman might imagine this to be an easy feat; but, as a matter of fact, no arm but Vautrin's was long enough to encircle her. Gleich alten Eheleuten hatten sie einander nichts mehr zu sagen. It was a characteristic trait of his generously to pay fifteen francs a month for the cup of coffee with a dash of brandy in it, which he took after dinner.
Less superficial observers than young men engulfed by the whirlpool of Parisian life, or old men, who took no interest in anything that did not directly concern them, would not have stopped short at the vaguely unsatisfactory impression that Vautrin made upon them. He knew or guessed the concerns of every one about him; but none of them had been able to penetrate his thoughts, or to discover his occupation. He had deliberately made his apparent good-nature, his unfailing readiness to oblige, and his high spirits into a barrier between himself and the rest of them, but not seldom he gave glimpses of appalling depths of character.
He seemed to delight in scourging the upper classes of society with the lash of his tongue, to take pleasure in convicting it of inconsistency, in mocking at law and order with some grim jest worthy of Juvenal, as if some grudge against the social system rankled in him, as if there were some mystery carefully hidden away in his life. Taillefer felt attracted, perhaps unconsciously, by the strength of the one man, and the good looks of the other; her stolen glances and secret thoughts were divided between them; but neither of them seemed to take any notice of her, although some day a chance might alter her position, and she would be a wealthy heiress.
For that matter, there was not a soul in the house who took any trouble to investigate the various chronicles of misfortunes, real or imaginary, related by the rest. Each one regarded the others with indifference, tempered by suspicion; it was a natural result of their relative positions. Practical assistance not one could give, this they all knew, and they had long since exhausted their stock of condolence over previous discussions of their grievances.
They were in something the same position as an elderly couple who have nothing left to say to each other. The routine of existence kept them in contact, but they were parts of a mechanism which wanted oil. There was not one of them but would have passed a blind man begging in the street, not one that felt moved to pity by a tale of misfortune, not one who did not see in death the solution of the all-absorbing problem of misery which left them cold to the most terrible anguish in others.
Diese Fragen streifen an gar manche Ungerechtigkeit der Welt. The happiest of these hapless beings was certainly Mme. Vauquer, who reigned supreme over this hospital supported by voluntary contributions. Those cells belonged to her. She fed those convicts condemned to penal servitude for life, and her authority was recognized among them. Where else in Paris would they have found wholesome food in sufficient quantity at the prices she charged them, and rooms which they were at liberty to make, if not exactly elegant or comfortable, at any rate clean and healthy? If she had committed some flagrant act of injustice, the victim would have borne it in silence.
Such a gathering contained, as might have been expected, the elements out of which a complete society might be constructed. And, as in a school, as in the world itself, there was among the eighteen men and women who met round the dinner table a poor creature, despised by all the others, condemned to be the butt of all their jokes. At the beginning of Eugene de Rastignac's second twelvemonth, this figure suddenly started out into bold relief against the background of human forms and faces among which the law student was yet to live for another two years to come.
This laughing-stock was the retired vermicelli-merchant, Father Goriot, upon whose face a painter, like the historian, would have concentrated all the light in his picture. Arme Kleine! How had it come about that the boarders regarded him with a half-malignant contempt? Why did they subject the oldest among their number to a kind of persecution, in which there was mingled some pity, but no respect for his misfortunes?
Had he brought it on himself by some eccentricity or absurdity, which is less easily forgiven or forgotten than more serious defects? The question strikes at the root of many a social injustice. Perhaps it is only human nature to inflict suffering on anything that will endure suffering, whether by reason of its genuine humility, or indifference, or sheer helplessness. Do we not, one and all, like to feel our strength even at the expense of some one or of something?
The poorest sample of humanity, the street arab, will pull the bell handle at every street door in bitter weather, and scramble up to write his name on the unsullied marble of a monument. In the year , at the age of sixty-nine or thereabouts, "Father Goriot" had sold his business and retired--to Mme. Vauquer's boarding house. When he first came there he had taken the rooms now occupied by Mme. Couture; he had paid twelve hundred francs a year like a man to whom five louis more or less was a mere trifle.
For him Mme. Vauquer had made various improvements in the three rooms destined for his use, in consideration of a certain sum paid in advance, so it was said, for the miserable furniture, that is to say, for some yellow cotton curtains, a few chairs of stained wood covered with Utrecht velvet, several wretched colored prints in frames, and wall papers that a little suburban tavern would have disdained.
Possibly it was the careless generosity with which Father Goriot allowed himself to be overreached at this period of his life they called him Monsieur Goriot very respectfully then that gave Mme. Vauquer the meanest opinion of his business abilities; she looked on him as an imbecile where money was concerned. Goriot had brought with him a considerable wardrobe, the gorgeous outfit of a retired tradesman who denies himself nothing. Vauquer's astonished eyes beheld no less than eighteen cambric-fronted shirts, the splendor of their fineness being enhanced by a pair of pins each bearing a large diamond, and connected by a short chain, an ornament which adorned the vermicelli-maker's shirt front.
He usually wore a coat of corn-flower blue; his rotund and portly person was still further set off by a clean white waistcoat, and a gold chain and seals which dangled over that broad expanse. When his hostess accused him of being "a bit of a beau," he smiled with the vanity of a citizen whose foible is gratified. The widow's eyes gleamed as she obligingly helped him to unpack the soup ladles, table-spoons, forks, cruet-stands, tureens, dishes, and breakfast services--all of silver, which were duly arranged upon shelves, besides a few more or less handsome pieces of plate, all weighing no inconsiderable number of ounces; he could not bring himself to part with these gifts that reminded him of past domestic festivals.
Vauquer, as he put away a little silver posset dish, with two turtle-doves billing on the cover. Do you know, I would sooner scratch the earth with my nails for a living, madame, than part with that. But I shall be able to take my coffee out of it every morning for the rest of my days, thank the Lord! I am not to be pitied. There's not much fear of my starving for some time to come. Sie redete ferner von guter Luft und idyllischer Ruhe.
Finally, Mme. Vauquer's magpie's eye had discovered and read certain entries in the list of shareholders in the funds, and, after a rough calculation, was disposed to credit Goriot worthy man with something like ten thousand francs a year. From that day forward Mme. Vauquer had her own ideas.
Though Goriot's eyes seemed to have shrunk in their sockets, though they were weak and watery, owing to some glandular affection which compelled him to wipe them continually, she considered him to be a very gentlemanly and pleasant-looking man. Moreover, the widow saw favorable indications of character in the well-developed calves of his legs and in his square-shaped nose, indications still further borne out by the worthy man's full-moon countenance and look of stupid good-nature.
This, in all probability, was a strongly-build animal, whose brains mostly consisted in a capacity for affection. Though his manners were somewhat boorish, he was always as neat as a new pin and he took his snuff in a lordly way, like a man who knows that his snuff-box is always likely to be filled with maccaboy, so that when Mme. Vauquer lay down to rest on the day of M. Goriot's installation, her heart, like a larded partridge, sweltered before the fire of a burning desire to shake off the shroud of Vauquer and rise again as Goriot.
She would marry again, sell her boarding-house, give her hand to this fine flower of citizenship, become a lady of consequence in the quarter, and ask for subscriptions for charitable purposes; she would make little Sunday excursions to Choisy, Soissy, Gentilly; she would have a box at the theatre when she liked, instead of waiting for the author's tickets that one of her boarders sometimes gave her, in July; the whole Eldorado of a little Parisian household rose up before Mme.
Vauquer in her dreams. For three months from that day Mme. Veuve Vauquer availed herself of the services of M. Goriot's coiffeur, and went to some expense over her toilette, expense justifiable on the ground that she owed it to herself and her establishment to pay some attention to appearances when such highly-respectable persons honored her house with their presence.
She expended no small amount of ingenuity in a sort of weeding process of her lodgers, announcing her intention of receiving henceforward none but people who were in every way select. If a stranger presented himself, she let him know that M. Goriot, one of the best known and most highly-respected merchants in Paris, had singled out her boarding-house for a residence.
In Wahrheit rechnete sie damit, sie um den Dienst zu bitten, Goriot auszuhorchen und sie bei ihm herauszustreichen. It was this prospectus that attracted Mme. Vauquer saw to her table, lighted a fire daily in the sitting-room for nearly six months, and kept the promise of her prospectus, even going to some expense to do so. And the Countess, on her side, addressed Mme. Vauquer as "my dear," and promised her two more boarders, the Baronne de Vaumerland and the widow of a colonel, the late Comte de Picquoisie, who were about to leave a boarding-house in the Marais, where the terms were higher than at the Maison Vauquer.
Both these ladies, moreover, would be very well to do when the people at the War Office had come to an end of their formalities. After dinner the two widows went together up to Mme. Vauquer's room, and had a snug little chat over some cordial and various delicacies reserved for the mistress of the house. Vauquer's ideas as to Goriot were cordially approved by Mme. The good-natured Countess turned to the subject of Mme. Vauquer's dress, which was not in harmony with her projects. After much serious consideration the two widows went shopping together--they purchased a hat adorned with ostrich feathers and a cap at the Palais Royal, and the Countess took her friend to the Magasin de la Petite Jeannette, where they chose a dress and a scarf.
Thus equipped for the campaign, the widow looked exactly like the prize animal hung out for a sign above an a la mode beef shop; but she herself was so much pleased with the improvement, as she considered it, in her appearance, that she felt that she lay under some obligation to the Countess; and, though by no means open-handed, she begged that lady to accept a hat that cost twenty francs.
The fact was that she needed the Countess' services on the delicate mission of sounding Goriot; the countess must sing her praises in his ears. She left him, revolted by his coarseness. He is absurdly suspicious, and he is a mean curmudgeon, an idiot, a fool; you would never be happy with him. Ich verstehe mich auf solche Fratzen. After what had passed between M. Goriot and Mme. She left the next day, forgot to pay for six months' board, and left behind her wardrobe, cast-off clothing to the value of five francs. Eagerly and persistently as Mme.
Vauquer sought her quondam lodger, the Comtesse de l'Ambermesnil was never heard of again in Paris. The widow often talked of this deplorable business, and regretted her own too confiding disposition. As a matter of fact, she was as suspicious as a cat; but she was like many other people, who cannot trust their own kin and put themselves at the mercy of the next chance comer--an odd but common phenomenon, whose causes may readily be traced to the depths of the human heart.
Perhaps there are people who know that they have nothing more to look for from those with whom they live; they have shown the emptiness of their hearts to their housemates, and in their secret selves they are conscious that they are severely judged, and that they deserve to be judged severely; but still they feel an unconquerable craving for praises that they do not hear, or they are consumed by a desire to appear to possess, in the eyes of a new audience, the qualities which they have not, hoping to win the admiration or affection of strangers at the risk of forfeiting it again some day.
Or, once more, there are other mercenary natures who never do a kindness to a friend or a relation simply because these have a claim upon them, while a service done to a stranger brings its reward to self-love. Such natures feel but little affection for those who are nearest to them; they keep their kindness for remoter circles of acquaintance, and show most to those who dwell on its utmost limits. Vauquer belonged to both these essentially mean, false, and execrable classes.
I know that kind of phiz! Eine der widerlichsten Eigenschaften der kleinen Seelen ist es, ihre eigene Kleinlichkeit bei den anderen vorauszusetzen. Wo lag nun die Ursache dieses Niederganges? Like all narrow natures, Mme. Vauquer was wont to confine her attention to events, and did not go very deeply into the causes that brought them about; she likewise preferred to throw the blame of her own mistakes on other people, so she chose to consider that the honest vermicelli maker was responsible for her misfortune.
It had opened her eyes, so she said, with regard to him. As soon as she saw that her blandishments were in vain, and that her outlay on her toilette was money thrown away, she was not slow to discover the reason of his indifference. In short, it was evident that the hope she had so fondly cherished was a baseless delusion, and that she would "never make anything out of that man yonder," in the Countess' forcible phrase.
The Countess seemed to have been a judge of character. Vauquer's aversion was naturally more energetic than her friendship, for her hatred was not in proportion to her love, but to her disappointed expectations. The human heart may find here and there a resting-place short of the highest height of affection, but we seldom stop in the steep, downward slope of hatred. Still, M. Goriot was a lodger, and the widow's wounded self-love could not vent itself in an explosion of wrath; like a monk harassed by the prior of his convent, she was forced to stifle her sighs of disappointment, and to gulp down her craving for revenge.
Little minds find gratification for their feelings, benevolent or otherwise, by a constant exercise of petty ingenuity. The widow employed her woman's malice to devise a system of covert persecution. She began by a course of retrenchment --various luxuries which had found their way to the table appeared there no more. The thrifty frugality necessary to those who mean to make their way in the world had become an inveterate habit of life with M. Soup, boiled beef, and a dish of vegetables had been, and always would be, the dinner he liked best, so Mme.
Vauquer found it very difficult to annoy a boarder whose tastes were so simple. He was proof against her malice, and in desperation she spoke to him and of him slightingly before the other lodgers, who began to amuse themselves at his expense, and so gratified her desire for revenge. Towards the end of the first year the widow's suspicions had reached such a pitch that she began to wonder how it was that a retired merchant with a secure income of seven or eight thousand livres, the owner of such magnificent plate and jewelry handsome enough for a kept mistress, should be living in her house.
Why should he devote so small a proportion of his money to his expenses? Until the first year was nearly at an end, Goriot had dined out once or twice every week, but these occasions came less frequently, and at last he was scarcely absent from the dinner-table twice a month. It was hardly expected that Mme. Vauquer should regard the increased regularity of her boarder's habits with complacency, when those little excursions of his had been so much to her interest.
She attributed the change not so much to a gradual diminution of fortune as to a spiteful wish to annoy his hostess. It is one of the most detestable habits of a Liliputian mind to credit other people with its own malignant pettiness. Unluckily, towards the end of the second year, M. Goriot's conduct gave some color to the idle talk about him. He asked Mme. Vauquer to give him a room on the second floor, and to make a corresponding reduction in her charges. Apparently, such strict economy was called for, that he did without a fire all through the winter.
Vauquer asked to be paid in advance, an arrangement to which M. Goriot consented, and thenceforward she spoke of him as "Father Goriot. Einen Monat nach diesem Besuch erhielt Herr Goriot wieder einen. What had brought about this decline and fall? Conjecture was keen, but investigation was difficult. Father Goriot was not communicative; in the sham countess' phrase he was "a curmudgeon. Opinion fluctuated. Sometimes it was held that he was one of those petty gamblers who nightly play for small stakes until they win a few francs.
A theory that he was a detective in the employ of the Home Office found favor at one time, but Vautrin urged that "Goriot was not sharp enough for one of that sort. He was by turns all the most mysterious brood of vice and shame and misery; yet, however vile his life might be, the feeling of repulsion which he aroused in others was not so strong that he must be banished from their society--he paid his way. Besides, Goriot had his uses, every one vented his spleen or sharpened his wit on him; he was pelted with jokes and belabored with hard words. The general consensus of opinion was in favor of a theory which seemed the most likely; this was Mme.
Vauquer's view. According to her, the man so well preserved at his time of life, as sound as her eyesight, with whom a woman might be very happy, was a libertine who had strange tastes. These are the facts upon which Mme. Vauquer's slanders were based.
Early one morning, some few months after the departure of the unlucky Countess who had managed to live for six months at the widow's expense, Mme. Vauquer not yet dressed heard the rustle of a silk dress and a young woman's light footstep on the stair; some one was going to Goriot's room.
He seemed to expect the visit, for his door stood ajar. The portly Sylvie presently came up to tell her mistress that a girl too pretty to be honest, "dressed like a goddess," and not a speck of mud on her laced cashmere boots, had glided in from the street like a snake, had found the kitchen, and asked for M. Goriot's room. Vauquer and the cook, listening, overheard several words affectionately spoken during the visit, which lasted for some time.
When M. Goriot went downstairs with the lady, the stout Sylvie forthwith took her basket and followed the lover-like couple, under pretext of going to do her marketing. Goriot must be awfully rich, all the same, madame," she reported on her return, "to keep her in such style. Just imagine it! While they were at dinner that evening, Mme.
Vauquer went to the window and drew the curtain, as the sun was shining into Goriot's eyes. Goriot--the sun seeks you out," she said, alluding to his visitor. Er verzichtete auf den Schnupftabak, verabschiedete seinen Friseur und trug das Haar ungepudert. Er hatte seinen blauen Rock, seine ganze Kleidung abgelegt und trug Sommer wie Winter einen groben kastanienbraunen Tuchrock, eine ziegenlederne Weste und grauwollene Beinkleider.
Sie sehen sie noch manchmal? A month after this visit M. Goriot received another. The same daughter who had come to see him that morning came again after dinner, this time in evening dress. The boarders, in deep discussion in the dining-room, caught a glimpse of a lovely, fair-haired woman, slender, graceful, and much too distinguished-looking to be a daughter of Father Goriot's.
A few days later, and another young lady--a tall, well-moulded brunette, with dark hair and bright eyes--came to ask for M. Then the second daughter, who had first come in the morning to see her father, came shortly afterwards in the evening. She wore a ball dress, and came in a carriage. Vauquer and her plump handmaid. Sylvie saw not a trace of resemblance between this great lady and the girl in her simple morning dress who had entered her kitchen on the occasion of her first visit.
At that time Goriot was paying twelve hundred francs a year to his landlady, and Mme. Vauquer saw nothing out of the common in the fact that a rich man had four or five mistresses; nay, she thought it very knowing of him to pass them off as his daughters. She was not at all inclined to draw a hard-and-fast line, or to take umbrage at his sending for them to the Maison Vauquer; yet, inasmuch as these visits explained her boarder's indifference to her, she went so far at the end of the second year as to speak of him as an "ugly old wretch.
Father Goriot answered that the lady was his eldest daughter. Vauquer sharply. Towards the end of the third year Father Goriot reduced his expenses still further; he went up to the third story, and now paid forty-five francs a month. He did without snuff, told his hairdresser that he no longer required his services, and gave up wearing powder. When Goriot appeared for the first time in this condition, an exclamation of astonishment broke from his hostess at the color of his hair--a dingy olive gray. He had grown sadder day by day under the influence of some hidden trouble; among all the faces round the table, his was the most woe-begone.
There was no longer any doubt. Goriot was an elderly libertine, whose eyes had only been preserved by the skill of the physician from the malign influence of the remedies necessitated by the state of his health. The disgusting color of his hair was a result of his excesses and of the drugs which he had taken that he might continue his career. The poor old man's mental and physical condition afforded some grounds for the absurd rubbish talked about him. His diamonds, his gold snuff-box, watch-chain and trinkets, disappeared one by one.
He had left off wearing the corn-flower blue coat, and was sumptuously arrayed, summer as well as winter, in a coarse chestnut-brown coat, a plush waistcoat, and doeskin breeches. He grew thinner and thinner; his legs were shrunken, his cheeks, once so puffed out by contented bourgeois prosperity, were covered with wrinkles, and the outlines of the jawbones were distinctly visible; there were deep furrows in his forehead.
In the fourth year of his residence in the Rue Neuve-Sainte-Genevieve he was no longer like his former self. The hale vermicelli manufacturer, sixty-two years of age, who had looked scarce forty, the stout, comfortable, prosperous tradesman, with an almost bucolic air, and such a brisk demeanor that it did you good to look at him; the man with something boyish in his smile, had suddenly sunk into his dotage, and had become a feeble, vacillating septuagenarian.
The keen, bright blue eyes had grown dull, and faded to a steel-gray color; the red inflamed rims looked as though they had shed tears of blood. He excited feelings of repulsion in some, and of pity in others. The young medical students who came to the house noticed the drooping of his lower lip and the conformation of the facial angle; and, after teasing him for some time to no purpose, they declared that cretinism was setting in. Diese Folgerung war nicht zu widerlegen. Poiret war ein Adler, ein Gentleman neben Goriot. Poiret sprach, widerlegte, scherzte.
One evening after dinner Mme. Vauquer said half banteringly to him, "So those daughters of yours don't come to see you any more, eh? Seine Tante, Frau von Marcillac, war in ihren jungen Jahren bei Hofe vorgestellt worden und hatte dort die Spitzen der Aristokratie kennen gelernt.
The old man scarcely seemed to hear the witticisms at his expense that followed on the words; he had relapsed into the dreamy state of mind that these superficial observers took for senile torpor, due to his lack of intelligence. If they had only known, they might have been deeply interested by the problem of his condition; but few problems were more obscure. It was easy, of course, to find out whether Goriot had really been a vermicelli manufacturer; the amount of his fortune was readily discoverable; but the old people, who were most inquisitive as to his concerns, never went beyond the limits of the Quarter, and lived in the lodging-house much as oysters cling to a rock.
As for the rest, the current of life in Paris daily awaited them, and swept them away with it; so soon as they left the Rue Neuve-Sainte-Genevieve, they forgot the existence of the old man, their butt at dinner. For those narrow souls, or for careless youth, the misery in Father Goriot's withered face and its dull apathy were quite incompatible with wealth or any sort of intelligence. As for the creatures whom he called his daughters, all Mme. Vauquer's boarders were of her opinion. With the faculty for severe logic sedulously cultivated by elderly women during long evenings of gossip till they can always find an hypothesis to fit all circumstances, she was wont to reason thus:.
No objection could be raised to these inferences. So by the end of the month of November , at the time when the curtain rises on this drama, every one in the house had come to have a very decided opinion as to the poor old man. Poiret was an eagle, a gentleman, compared with Goriot. Poiret would join the talk, argue, answer when he was spoken to; as a matter of fact, his talk, arguments, and responses contributed nothing to the conversation, for Poiret had a habit of repeating what the others said in different words; still, he did join in the talk; he was alive, and seemed capable of feeling; while Father Goriot to quote the Museum official again was invariably at zero degrees--Reaumur.
Eugene de Rastignac had just returned to Paris in a state of mind not unknown to young men who are conscious of unusual powers, and to those whose faculties are so stimulated by a difficult position, that for the time being they rise above the ordinary level. Rastignac's first year of study for the preliminary examinations in law had left him free to see the sights of Paris and to enjoy some of its amusements.
A student has not much time on his hands if he sets himself to learn the repertory of every theatre, and to study the ins and outs of the labyrinth of Paris. To know its customs; to learn the language, and become familiar with the amusements of the capital, he must explore its recesses, good and bad, follow the studies that please him best, and form some idea of the treasures contained in galleries and museums. At this stage of his career a student grows eager and excited about all sorts of follies that seem to him to be of immense importance.
He has his hero, his great man, a professor at the College de France, paid to talk down to the level of his audience. He adjusts his cravat, and strikes various attitudes for the benefit of the women in the first galleries at the Opera-Comique. As he passes through all these successive initiations, and breaks out of his sheath, the horizons of life widen around him, and at length he grasps the plan of society with the different human strata of which it is composed. If he begins by admiring the procession of carriages on sunny afternoons in the Champs-Elysees, he soon reaches the further stage of envying their owners.
Please close the door! Die rur schlieOt schlecht. The door closes poorly. Die Geschafte schlieOen urn The stores close at p. Abends schlieOen sich die Bluten In the evening the blossoms of dieser Blume. Shall I slice the cheese? Die Schere schneidet gut. The scissors cut well. Ich habe mich mir in den Finger I cut my finger. Die Jacke schutzt mich gut vor The jacket is good protection Wind. Vorsicht, die Pflanze sticht! Careful, the plant is thorny and will scratch you!
She bumped him in the back. Ich bin mit dem Kopf gegen eine I banged my head on a glass Glastur gesto0en. Ich habe mich am Knie aesto0en. I banaed mv knee. Ich suche meine Brille. Have sie gesehen? Suche rzu:xa] -, kein PI. Gesicht aetroffen. Ich treffe-Uwe morgen. Wir treffen uns jeden Tag.
We meet every day. Es ist besser, wenn wir uns It would be better if we parted trennen. Sie haben sich vor kurzem ge- They separated recently. Er hat sich stark verandert. Sie allein e haben die Verantwor- You have to bear the responsibili- fiivf l a Entscheidung.
He lost his credit card. Die Katze hat sich auf dem Dach- The cat hid in the attic. Ich habe keineverwendung dishes? I have no more use for mehr dafur. Er hat sich gut auf die Prufung He prepared well for the test. Die Leiter steht nicht Be careful! The ladder is not fest. Das Wetter wechselt standig. The weather changes all the time. Konnten Sie mir ,- DM wech- Could you change one hundred seln? Marks for me? Did you weigh the suitcase? Ich bin 1,65 m gro0 und wiege 55 I am 1.
- 1. Introduction.
- Full interview.
- Die Freigabe der Vernichtung Lebensunwerten Lebens!
- 100 Phil Stories.
- Monolithos: Poems 62-82?
- Walts Comfort Food Recipes From Mels Diner.
Please close the window! Der Uufer gab erschopft auf. The runner gave up, exhausted. Er hob seinen Mantel vom Boden He picked his coat up off the floor. Would you please open the bottle? Wann macht der Supermarkt auf? When does the supermarket ooen? Wir hatten das Zelt direkt am We put the tent up right on the Strand aufaestellt. Welche Fremdsc:x h e n beherr- Which foreign languages do you schen Sie?
Bitte bleib ruhig und beherrsch Please be calm and control your- dich! Man She still needs a lot of rest. You muss beriicksichtigen, dass sie have to consider that she was sehr krank war. He burned his hand. The slightest Jede Beruhruna tut weh. The children formed a circle. Der Wind blast mir ins Gesicht. Wind is blowing in my face.
Who turned on the radio? Hand nicht erreichen. Sie konnen mich unter dieser You can reach me at this number. Nummer erreichen. Hast du erreicht, was du wolltest? Did you get what you wanted? The thief was caught. Hast du den Zug noch erwischt? Did you still make your train?
Ich habe noch einen Pullover er- I managed to still get a sweater. Sonst waren fast alle ver- Most of them were already sold. Forderung [fcerdarug] i -, kein assistance, support, help, aid n PI. Es gibt an unserer Schule jetzt At our school there are courses to Kurse zur Forderung der schlech- help weak students. Jemand klopft an die Did you hear that? Someone is mr. Machst du bitte die Tiir The doorbell rang. Would you auf? Dlease oDen the door? Auf einigen Klaus can paint well.
In a number Bildern ahmt er van Gogh nach. She sews all her own clothes. The storm knocked down the tent. Der Dieb hat ihr die Tasche weg- The thief ripped off her purse. Achtung, das Seil reifit! Look out, the rope is tearing! Wegen einer Storung konnte er Because of an interference he kein Fernsehbildempfangen. Er stutzt sich auf einen Stock. He supports himself with a cane. Die Farbe trocknet schnell. The paint dries quickly. Bitte That can't be right. Please check uberprufen Sie die Rechnung the bill again! Ich uberraschte rneine Tochter, I surprised my daughter smoking als sie heimlich eine Zigarette a cigarette secretly.
Er ist ein unvorsichtiger Fahrer, er He is a careless driver; he drives fahrt so wild. Die Tiere verbargen sich bis zum The animals hid in the forest until Abend im Wald. Die Qualitat der Produkte hat sich The quality of the products im- im letzten Jahr verbessert. The canal connects two rivers.
Monika spilled coffee. She helped him get a job. Seit ihrer Krankheit hat sie sich Since her illness she has changed vollkommen verwandelt. She spoils her cat.
Die Freigabe der Vernichtung Lebensunwerten Lebens
Sie wagt sich nachts nicht allein She does not dare to walk durch den Park. Niemand, es ist in der Spulma- o Nobody; it shattered by itself in schine von selbst zerbrochen. He covered the sleepincl child. What does this word mean? Begriff [ba'griq rn, - e s, -e concept, term, idea n Mein Arzt verwendet oft medizini- My doctor often uses medical sche Begriffe, die ich nicht ver- terms that I do not understand.
Beispiel ['baiJpi:l] n, -s,-e example n Er erklarte das Problem anhand He explained the problem using eines BeisDiels. Bibliothek [biblio'te:k] f -,-en library n Das Buch habe ich in der Biblio- I borrowed the book from the li- thek ausgeliehen. Bildung ['bilduq] r; -, kein PI. The word has nine letters. Fach [fax] n, - e s, Facher subject academic n Sie weiO noch nicht, welches She does not yet know which Fach sie studieren mochte. German language and literature enjoys a long tradition. He is a very good teacher. The -Die Schuler mogen ihn.
He is readina the newsDaDer. Sie kann schnell rechnen. She can calculate quickly. The book has pages. I do not know where he lives. Wissenschaft [vis a njaft] f -, branch 09 knowledge, acade- -en mic subject, science n Philosophie ist die alteste Wis- Philosophyis the oldest branch of senschaft. Uber die Ursachen von Krebs gibt There have been many scientific es viele wissenschaftliche Unter- studies on the causes of cancer.
The poem has seven lines.
Biologie [biolo'gi:] f -, kein PI. Semester Bio- She is in her third semester in loaie. Blatt [blat] n, - e s, die Blatter piece, sheet of paper n Kannst du mir bitte ein Blatt Pa- Could you please give me a piece pier geben? Block [bbk] m, -s, die Blocke pad of paper , block n Bringe mir bitte einen Block Pa- Please bring me a pad of paper pier aus dem Schreibwarenge- from the stationery store. Bucherei [by:qa'rai] f -, -en library n Das Buch habe ich in der Stadt- I borrowed the book from the mu- bucherei ausgeliehen.
I Chemie [qe:'mi:] f; -, kein PI. Jahrhunderl war das Zeit- The fifteenth century was the age alter der grol3en Entdeckungs- of the great journeys of discovery. Stone Age. Konzentration concentration n [kmtsentraYsjo:n] f -, kein PI. Der Text ist schwierig. Das Lesen The text is difficult.
Reading it re- erfordert hohe Konzentration. Ich muss mich Don't disturb me! I have to konzentrieren. Notiz [no'ti:ts] f -, -en note written n Ich habe mir wahrend des Ge- I took notes during the conversa- sorachs einiae Notizen aemacht. Philosophie [filozo'fi:] f -, kein philosophy n P1. Herr Dr. Kranz ist kein Arzt, er ist Dr.
Kranz is not a physician; he is Doktor der Philosophie. Physik [fy'zik] f -, kein PI. Praxis ['praksis] f -, kein PI. Derience in her Drofession. Symbol [zym'bo:l] n, -s, -e symbol n Das x ist das Symbol fur Multipli- "x" is the symbol for multiplica- kation in der Mathematik. Tabelle [ta'bela] f -,-en table of information ,chart n Die genauen Daten finden Sie in You can find the exact data in the der Tabelle. Fuchs wur- The concepts of Prof.
Fuchs were den ausfuhrlich diskutiert. Das Buch beginnt mit einem all- The book begins with a general gemeinen Uberblick uber die Ge- overview of the history of the ni- schichte des I do not know English. Could you Konnten Sie mir den Brief uber- translate the letter for me? German translation for the book. Er zeigte vie1Verstandnis fur mei- He showed considerable under- ne schwierige Situation. Jens has a verv loud voice.
Why are you so quiet today? Wort [v3rt] n, -es, -e Worter word n Dieser Satz hat funf Worter. This sentence has five words. Sie kann komplizierte Dinge mit She is able to explain complicat- einfachen Worten erklaren. Ich habe What did she say? I was not lis- nicht zugehort. Die franzosische Aussprache ist The pronunciation of French is fur Deutsche sehr schwer. Bitte How do you spell that? Please buchstabieren Sie!
Laut [laut] m, -es, -e sound in words n Es war vollig still. Man horte kei- It was completely quiet. You nen Laut. Witz [vits] m, -es, -e joke n Mein Kolleae erzahlt aerne Witze. Mv colleaaue likes to tell iokes. We have to call a doctor. Sie rief laut nach ihrem Hund. She called her dog loudly. He tells nobody how old he is. Satz [zats] m, -es, Satze sentence n Das Buch ist in einfachen und The book is written in simple and kurzen Satzen aeschrieben.
She speaks three foreign lan- guages. Er spricht sehr undeutlich. He enunciates poorly. Schroder announced his visit nen Besuch anaekundiat. Ich That is a misunderstanding. I habe mich wohl nicht richtig aus- guess I did not express myself gedruckt. Weber has had an accident. Bitte benachrichtigen Sie seine Please inform his wife. Frau Please call later. See1 is in a See1 ist in einer Besprechung. He did not mention her name. She whispered his name softly. In der Bibliothek darf man nur In the library, you are only allowed flustern. Wirtz said everything that gesagt.
Es gibt nichts hinzuzu- was necessary. There is nothing fiigen. Die rnundliche Prufung findet in The oral examination takes place Raum statt. Schrei [Jrai] m, - e s, -e cry, scream n Ich horte Schreie und Hilferufe. I heard screams and calls for help. Er schrie vor Schmerz. He screamed with Dain. Uber diesesThema wird z. Deine Hand- schrift kann ich I cannot read your hand writing. Zettel [tset a l] m, -s, - note, piece of paper n Ich habe dir auf einen Zettel ge- I wrote you a note about what you schrieben, was du einkaufen should buy.
Diesen Vertrag rnussen Sie You have to cancel this contract schriftlich kundigen. Sie hat mir von ihrem Urlaub be- She told me about her vacation. Beschreibung [ba'lraibuq] f -, description n -en Die Zeugin konnte eine genaue The witness could give an exact Beschreibung des Taters geben. Auf der Messe habe ich mich uber At the fair I collected information neue Computer informiert. Er wusste viele Neuig- for two hours. He had a lot of kaiten. Rat [ra:t] m, - e s, Ratschlage advice n i Jochen hat mir gute Ratschlage Jochen gave me good advice a- fur den Autokauf neneben.
Konnen Sie mir zeigen, wie die Can you show me how the ma- Maschine funktioniert? Vie- The exam was very difficult. There le Fragen konnte ich nicht beant- were many questions I could not worten. Uber die neuenVorschlage haben We discussed the new sugges- wir lange beraten. Tipp [tip] m, -s, -s tip, hint n Er hat mir einen guten Tipp ge- He gave me a good tip.
Ich muss mich uber den Sachver- I have to learn about the subject. I find it verv noisv. Ansicht ['anziqt] f -, -en opinion, idea n Ich kann ihn nicht leiden, er hat I don't like him; he has strange komische Ansichten. Begrundung [ba'gryndug] f -, justification, reason n -en Fur ihre Verspatung gab sie keine She gave no justification for Beqrunduna.
Diskussion [disku'sjo:n] t -, -en discussion n Uber die neuen Steuergesetze There were long discussions a- aab es lanae Diskussionen. Ich mochte feststellen, dass ich I would like to state that I was von Anfang an gegen den Plan against the plan from the begin- war. Ich meine, dass unsere Regie- I believe that our government runa endlich zurucktreten sollte.
Ich habe mich uberzeugt, dass I confirmed that Vera is telling the Vera die Wahrheit sagt. Er ist gewissermaOen der heimli- It could be said that he is the che Chef der Partei. The discussion was very objec- tive. You nach Hause. Das ist doch klar. Die Losung des Problems ist un- The solution to the problem is aewohnlich, aber erfolqreich. Bess is qualified for this job.
Oh yes, I am. Sie hat mir eine falsche Adresse She gave me the wrong address. Yes o Bleibst du zu Hause? Nein, leider nicht. The answer is correct. Sinn [zin] rn, - e s, kein PI. Ich muss unbedingt noch Brot fur I definitely need to buy some das Wochenende kaufen. Wahl [va:l] t -,-en choice n Das muss ich tun, ich habe keine I have to do that; I have no other andere Wahl. Das Essen war gut. The food was great. Ich kann zwischen drei Angebo- I can choose among three offers. In der Geschaftsleitungfand sein His plan got approved by the ma- Plan sofort Zustimmung. Wir haben heute ausnahmsweise As an exception we finish work fruher Feierabend.
I schon so spat ist. Ich muss unbe- have to leave. Einigung [ainigug] f -, kein PI. Das ist mir gleichgultig. Ja, wir haben keine Klagen. We have no complaints. Ja klar. Protest [pro'tsst] m, -es, -e protest n Gegen das neue Gesetz gab es There were many protests heftiae Proteste. Sie will nicht zugeben, dass sie In spite of lengthy discussions, no Unrecht hat. Sie will nicht zugeben, dass sie She won't admit she was wrong. Unrecht hat. Sie ist anaeblich krank. She is sumosedlv ill.
I will certainlv call. Er We can understand him well. He spricht sehr deutlich. Sie kann sich nicht entscheiden, She can't decide which sweater welchen Pullover sie kaufen to buy. Susanne bringt eventuell ihre Maybe Susanne is bringing along Schwester mit. Frage I'fra:ga] f -, -n question n Er hat die Frage richtig beant- He answered the question cor- wortet.
Der Kunde hat nach dem Liefer- The customer asked when it termin gefragt. Ich frage mich, wie wir das schaf- I wonder [lit. The passport is goodI for five years. Sie ailt als zuverlassin. She is considered to be reliable. Er hat eine gewisse Ahnlichkeit He has a certain resemblance to mit seinem Vater. Der Tod ist jedem Menschen Death is a certain fact for eve- gewiss.
Er ist gewiss noch nicht fertig, er He is certainly not finishi? Er glaubt an eine bessere Zu- He believes in a better future. HoDefullv he will aet well soon. Zimmerschlussel gegeben. Verzeihung, das war ein Irrtum. Es ist moglich, dass er gelogen It is possible that he lied. Das ist leider nicht moglich, sie That is unfortunately not possi- ist heute verreist. Moglicherweise komme ich heute Maybe I will get home late today. V, muss- must, have to v te, hat gemusst Ingrid und Sven sind standig ZU- Ingrid and Sven are always to- sammen, sie mussen verliebt gether; they must be in love.
Sie hat mich gegru0t. Scheinbar She greeted me. Apparently she kennt sie mich. Viel- Ask Mr. Maybe he knows. Voraussichtlich wird es heute It is likely to get very cold tonight. Nacht sehr kalt werden. Wahr- I don't feel well. I'm probably get- scheinlich bekomme ich eine Er- ting a cold. Pelz has a very expensive Sie verdient wohl gut. I guess she earns a lot.
Zweifel ['tsvaif a l] m, -s, - doubt n Es besteht kein Zweifel, dass er There's no doubt he was guilty of an dem Unfall schuld war. Behauptung [ba'hauptug] t -, statement, assertion n -en Kannst du deine Behauptung be- Can you prove your assertion? Beweis [ba'vais] m, -es, -e evidence, proof n Vermutlich war er der Tater, aber He was probably the one who did es gibt keine Beweise. August den ganzen Tag zu all day on the third of August? Hause waren? Geheimnis [ga'haimnis] n, -ses, secret n -se Sie hat Staatsgeheimnissean ei- She revealed state secrets to a ne Zeitung verraten.
Apparently he's Er ist offenbar umgezogen. Das hat er sicherlich ver- He has certainly forgotten. Seine so genannte Cousine ist in His so-called cousin is really his Wahrheit seine Freundin. Es ware ein Wunder, wenn er It would be a surprise if he came aunktlich nach Hause kame. Sportler ist.
Der Schmuck ist echt. The jewelry is real. The explanation is very simple. Das Haus ist einfach toll. The house is simdv wonderful! I liked the movie a lot. Es geht mir gut. I'm doing well. Ich bekomme ein gutes Gehalt. I get a good salary. I consider her to be very intelli- gent. Lob [lo:p] n, - e s, kein PI. The deal was worth it. The film was very humorous. I don't want to watch television today. Blumen mag ich sehr. I like flowers a lot. Ich mochte gern ein Kotelett I'd like to eat a pork chop. Nein danke, das ist nicht notig.
No thanks; that's not neces- sary. She used her opportunities. Sein gutes Zeugnis hat ihm bei His good grades helped him a lot der Stellensuche vie1 aenutzt. He buys a lot of useless things. The meal was excellent. That is all right with me. Haben Sie bisher alles richtig ver- Have you understood everything standen? The shirt looks aood on vou. The novel is quite suspenseful. Most DeoDle think he is nice. Was ist der wahre Grund fur deine What is the real reas6n for your Abreise? She did not tell the truth.
The appointment is very impor- tant. Die Ausstellung war ausge- The exhibition was excellent. Er ist auRergewohnlich groR. He is unusually big. Ich kann mich fur Sport nicht be- Icannot get excited about sports. She prefers strong cigarettes. His parents are amazingly young. Zum Essen gab es einen hervor- There was an excellent wine for ragenden Wein.
Er ist ein komi- I do not like him. He is a curious scher Mensch. Wir haben sehr gelacht. Die Situa- We laughed a lot. I am quite plain about that in my own mind. In public in Germany before Irving endorsed the 6 million figure. The opposite is true. I myself speak in my works of the extermination of 6 million Jews.
Following the Leuchter Report , Irving saw himself obliged to remove all previous references to Auschwitz, Treblinka, and Majdanek as extermination camps from his subsequent publications, starting in Germany in with a book based largely on previous works. There could be no doubt as to their integrity…. But it is now up to them to explain to me as an intelligent and critical student of modern history why there is no significant trace of any cyanide compound in the buildings, which they have always identified as the former gas chambers.
Forensic science is, I repeat, an exact science. The ball is in their court. In the press release accompanying the launch of the Leuchter Report Irving wrote:. The defence attorneys there showed me the forensic test results on the buildings identified by Holocaust historians as Auschwitz gas chambers.
The results have convinced me that the buildings were not, at any time, gas chambers. There is no trace of cyanide compounds in their fabric, and there should be. This is how it was when I was in Toronto a couple of years ago. As a person who, at the University in London, studied chemistry and physics and the exact sciences, I knew that this was an exact result.
There was no way around it. The international revisionist network intensified and radicalized its activities in the late s and early s, Germany being no exception. This development was in some senses coincidental, in others integral to the growth and force of the German neo-Nazi network. The GdNF network saw revisionism as an important element in creating a neo-Nazi oriented totalitarian regime.
Strands of revisionism which blame Jewish propaganda for the lie of Auschwitz gave added ammunition to attack Jews and others seen as hindering them in achieving their goals. Thus radical revisionism was to become a central ideological and organisational factor in the neo-Nazi network in Germany. Irving himself was brilliantly prepared after his conversion to denial to spread the denialist gospel in Germany and indeed in the rest of the world. Irving would seem to have first met Althans after a speech in Toronto on 4 March Handed a letter to him setting out my willingness, and orally told him my terms for a proposed lecture tour.
Althans makes a very good impression, businesslike and ambitious, keen, and organized. He has learned a lot already. Something makes me suspect he may be a stoolpigeon however. He is willing to arrange an Austrian speaking tour for me in November. For instance Philipp later asked Irving to fax him an article from the London Jewish Chronicle to enable Philipp to write up an article on the propaganda campaign against Irving.
Irving had been invited to take part in a round-table discussion with historians. The protest had already been planned in advance with the help of Althans and Philipp. Twenty-three people, some quite rough. In the morning of 3 October Irving held a press conference in the Kempinski Hotel. Philipp had previously given publicity in Germany for the original launch of the Leuchter Report in London on 23 June There was no mass murder with poison gas. In that case who invented this fairy tale or this propaganda?
The Political Warfare Executive had already thought up this propaganda lie in Only you and the German historians. It is a defamation of the German people if one talks of extermination camps or death camps. Irving held two brief demonstrations before and after the radio program in an attempt to confront the other participants in the radio show. Gerd Sudholt. After a Linz restaurant refused to allow Irving to speak there, he and invited guests were allowed to hold the meeting in castle Hochscharten outside Markflecken Waizenkirchen. The castle belonged to Robert Wimmer.
When the Austrian police arrived Irving appeared with his mouth demonstratively covered with masking tape. He was not allowed to speak and had to make do with signing autographs. He is a fine speaker, and when he relied on his own material rather than mine he was very good. Christophersen had been long interested in Irving, although Irving less so in him. You said during your presentation in Kiel when a listener mentioned the Auschwitz lie to you that you did not want to discuss the topic because you were not tired of life. I understand this completely. For this reason I will always continue to defend you.
There enough historians today who can disprove the Holocaust. They are all silenced. It would be bad if you too were to be silenced. We are eternally grateful for your influence. You are doing the right thing. Christophersen had also invited Irving to speak in Antwerp in , mentioning that he and Irving had once met and spoken briefly with one another, and that Christophersen was the person who regularly sent him Die Bauernschaft. Christophersen himself apparently did not attend the Hagenau conference because of the threat of arrest if he entered France, which could have entailed deportation to Germany to face charges.
On the question what happened to the Jews Irving said that certainly some were murdered, but that was the least of them. Many died in flight exactly like the Germans after the expulsion [from eastern Europe]. But many disappeared and live under other names in Israel or New York. This is new ground we are breaking there, so it will be a real test of Ewalds skills! On 13 February Irving spoke in Dresden on the anniversary of the Allied bombing.
He was to hold a press conference at 2 p. In the following podium discussion, Irving clearly declared his belief in revisionism. In the following days two planned meetings in Stuttgart and Augsburg fell through. It had been long planned that he make his first appearance before the NL in Hamburg, at a meeting chaired by Christian Worch. Firstly he had to make good a certain amount of bad feeling resulting from his speech in Hagenau the previous November. His comments in Hagenau had alienated supporters from northern Germany who, as a result, were considering no longer inviting Irving to speak.
Hence perhaps the unusually frantic security efforts. Worch had promised Irving, that although his appearance in Hamburg was organised by the NL and invitations had been sent out on NL stationary, it was in essence a meeting organised by him as a private person. It is worth double or triple the amount to me.
Irving described the rest of the evening himself. Rumours come that tonight there is to be much violence, etc. This evoked consternation, then comprehension, in Althans,…. I drove to Hamburg…. So I drove out there at speed, made a rousing speech, which was very well received, then zipped on to the Burschenschaft Germania…. There were surly faces against me at the NL meeting when I arrived.
But at the end of the meeting all were pleased. It was a good speech — knorke [super], I think my current biographical subject [Goebbels] would say. But I no longer believe in this legend. I say the following. There were no gas chambers in Auschwitz, only dummies, built by the Poles in the years following the war, exactly like the dummies the Americans built in Dachau that had to be torn down by the Americans at the orders of the West German government because they were dummies.
But the dummies are still standing in Auschwitz, because the German government has no sway there. And understandably that is a problem for you that you have a government in Bonn that allows its own people to be defamed by all the countries of the world, although in the meantime it is cried out that these things in Auschwitz, and probably in Majdanek, Treblinka, and in other so-called extermination camps in the east are all dummies.
Tellingly Irving openly admitted that what he was saying was illegal. Because what we say is [interrupted by commotion in the hall]. Very dangerous. From his diary it would seem evident that Irving was pleased with his appearance before the NL. Irving was likewise obviously pleased to have met the Worschs. He wrote to them thanking them for their friendly help and support, and expressing his hope to see them in Munich on 21 April at the coming revisionist conference.
Benedict gives the wider background to the meeting. Parts of them were hindered by the police. Others demonstrated freely against the Soviet Consulate. She also mentions that this was a turning point for east-Berlin activists who up until the evening had not had fundamental doubts about the fact of the Holocaust. Speech very well received. It was a good, heated, demagogic speech, with every punch line brilliantly delivered and hugely applauded. Now I no longer believe this story at all. Today I say the following: there were no gassings in Auschwitz. Today I say, that they are only dummies that the Poles built after Exactly as the Americans built similar dummies in Dachau.
How do I know so precisely that they are only dummies? What convinced me? It takes something to stand up and say that there were no gas chambers. The existing gas chambers are only dummies built by the Poles or some other officials after the end of the Second World War for the purpose of the damnation and defamation of the German people in the world.
You can support it yourself with letters to newspapers, through a whispering campaign, precisely by passing on what I have said to you tonight. During this tour Irving also began to become aware of the possibilities of publishing, recording, and generally marketing his speeches.
Wants five brochures, 4 month intervals [Sic]; will pay DM for Wahrheit macht Frei Tagebuch einer Vortragsreihe [diary of a speaking tour] brochure text of Moers speech…. It is better than I thought. Tightened it up, checked the facts, dates, and quotations. I must publish more of these. His initial plan to speak at a meeting in Belgium organised by Althans indicates his preferences at the time. He arranges a last minute deal with me, whereby he will pay me DM for right to publish a synopsis of this most recent Vortrag [Speech]. He is an ambitious man, and I like that.
Irving was guaranteed the right to sell and sign his own books, whilst the organiser was requested to restrict the amount of literature he or she himself could offer. Irving received DM for some speeches presumably his share from those who had paid Althans DM and DM for larger speeches presumably his share from those who had paid DM 1, The three themes offered by Althans were evidently flexible or expendable.
Without falling prey to self-pity, we Germans can confirm that our people are by far and away the greatest victim of manipulation of the historical truth. Udo Walendy was rather more measured in his language in the invitation to the meeting in Porta Westfalica on 4 March , but the message was clear. This planned meeting is of enormous political importance because the British historian has caused a great stir, better said has considerably widened the breach in the change of opinions with numerous researches, with his unequivocal position on the most recent German past and revisionist research world wide — and once again in Dresden!
We believe that this way we can better attract national thinking people in our area to come. The clause in which the signator guaranteed that Irving not be politically used, was therefore a patent smoke screen The titles of the speeches were obviously catch-all, to pacify the authorities and perhaps to attract the unwary.
Both Irving and his hosts were part of a political campaign to rehabilitate the German past. In early April Irving made a short trip to Germany. Althans flew to London and both men flew on to Germany where Althans interviewed Irving and filmed the banned Passau speech. During the day we set up a comprehensive long term marketing approach for my brochures, speeches, videos and audio tapes.
In January Christophersen had invited to attend a meeting in Nordschleswig on 16 April From 20 — 22 April Irving attended the first revisionist conference in Munich as its star speaker. Kempkens, Prof. Schrocke, E. Forster, and Fabian Nledermeier. Security was provided by Worch of the NL. The days of defensive revisionism are over. Revisionism especially the Holocaust complex and the connected propaganda lies like indiscriminate discussions about this theme in the media have achieved a scientific basis. Rethinking will be the beginning of the second revolution this century.
This synthesis is striking and for some commentators the congress signalled the breakthrough of the GdNF within the fascist scene in Germany. Irving was filmed saying,. The evidence is available, the facilities have been chemically investigated. We have now published the document [the Leuchter Report ] in the whole world. And I can tell you ladies and gentlemen, that will stir things up. That will scare the wits out of our enemy. Irving himself later claimed that he had been accidentally caught up in the demonstration. In a letter of June Christian Worch made clear to Irving who had organised the march, and who Irving was dealing with.
Without them, nice, good people would have allowed themselves to be stopped by 12 policemen until the police had managed to call in enough reinforcements to nip any march in the bud. It was the small radical minority who simply set off and gave the lead to the hesitant mass in their bourgeoisie caution who needed them to set themselves off. As most of the active revisionists of today were still concerning themselves with their bourgeoisie careers or at the most once a year attended the large rallies of the DVU [i. My only criticism: the skinheads and the flags. It only serves our cause up to the enemy on a plate.
Evidently I trod on some susceptibilities. Philipp tells Remer the meeting is cancelled, and he leaves. Irving toured Germany again in September. On 3 October Irving flew to Germany and back in an attempt to be heard at the trial of Frank Grieksch. The important British revisionist David Irving 52 , who spoke at the DVU rally in Passau was not allowed to speak because the town administration put a ban on the meeting.
Irving was nevertheless not identified when he entered Germany, however, he distributes the Leuchter Report from London. In March Irving was again invited to speak at the second revisionist conference in Munich. I therefore expect no difficulties from the authorities. Althans had hired the hall of the German Museum in Munich that could hold 2, people. That the congress did not take place as planned was due only to the determination of the museum administration.
Rost von Tonningen were to have spoken. Irving recorded the fiasco in his diary, no longer willing to incur arrest after his experience at the first conference. Althans arrives around a. I consequently speak only two minutes, telling the crowd around hardy soulds [Sic] braving the blustery weather that I am not allowed to speak. Further shambles.
The period April to May is impossible to reconstruct with any degree of certainty. In May Irving returned to Germany. The NPD was informed that the meeting could only go ahead if they took the responsibility that Irving only speak about the persecution of the Jews in the Third Reich as far as he did not deny it. On 14 May Irving had breakfast with Reinhard Rade. The company later went on to a beer hall where they met Ursula Worsch.
About to people came during the time I was there, including familiar faces. The total catastrophe. The speeches of I have to give up. I can picture you now foaming with rage. And I am very scared that we will fall out again over this. You yourself know what kind of a position I have been in since the Leuchter Congress. Althans complained that he was plagued by the bailiffs, his phone had been cut off, and that trips to the former east Germany required time and money, neither of which he had.
A banned meeting had been broken up with truncheons. The bookshop had become subject to numerous attacks making it necessary to guard it. Comrades, like Harder [Ulrich? Worst of all, Philipp was conducting a whispering campaign against him. Thus for example K[arl] P[hilipp] has managed to incite Gen. They in turn have managed to stir things up more with their naive innocence you know how much I value Remer and Honsik.
Since February Althans had been on trial in Stuttgart and was threatened with a long imprisonment. Perhaps one would have got somewhere if we had been at the meeting. There were a lot of people there upon whose supportive assistance I could have hoped. But Karl Philipp, who knew that you were coming because I was stupid enough to register you as a guest as required, lied to you that I wanted to use you to break up the event. You believed him and cancelled with me.
And, as expected, I alone received no invitation. This passage presumably relates to a meeting that had taken place between Irving and Althans in Munich on 11 June. What the —? The list of those who were to speak was almost identical to that in Munich. The conference was banned. Despite the ban people gathered in Roding, only to be cleared out of the meeting rooms by police.
Some NF supporters fought with police, leading to two arrests and hurt policemen and neo-Nazis. An later attempt to hold the congress in the evening led to 38 arrests. Karl Phillip wrote to Irving on 4 July boasting about the meeting in Cham where he had successfully held a meeting for Dr. Schaller and Faurisson despite a concerted police effort to break up the meeting. We should take it in mind to do something with him in late Autumn. He is really a soldier and everything goes off with military discipline and according to military organisation.
He has almost young people around him who follow his commands. The nuances of the dispute are unclear, but the conclusions are inescapable. Irving was no mere hired speaker to the neo-Nazis or in the revisionist movement, but had the political weight to support or undermine political positions and alliances within both scenes. I am of course alarmed, sorry, and annoyed.
It is unprofessional to say the least of Althans. I have ordered a thousand books, etc. I am now left hanging around like a spare prick at a wedding! The only items that survive are Hamburg which I arranged, after he failed to contact Ulrich Harder for weeks ; Bonn, and weeks later Wunsiedel. I doubt personally that Wunsiedel will come off this year, but one must be an optimist. What can we do? Do you have any independent people there, anybody in the major cities who could set up isolated events for me on the lines of Stuttgart last September, which was a brilliant success?
Needless to say, I have the utmost faith in you. You are a professional. You know the law in both Canada and Germany, and keep within it, so far as I can judge. I do of course appreciate the serious personal problems Althans is facing, which must be a serious disappointment for him. Sometimes we have to hang strong. Those times are now. I am very sorry that we are losing Mittledeutschland [central Germany] like this. Irving also asked Ulrich Harder if he could arrange anything at short notice.
Harder regretted he could do nothing. You know that I have always made a great effort for you because I think you are simply fantastic and indispensable to Germany. And I certainly also have some contacts. Nevertheless not sufficient in central Germany, [as] we from the NPD are still in the process of initially building them up and this will still take a little time. Philipp likewise replied in the negative. Irving had originally planned to stay overnight with Althans.
Once again the milieu in which Irving operated is clear. It is good. I asked if Otto Ernst Remer is not fearful of being prosecuted: Ph. The meeting obviously produced a lot of resonance. It was magnificent and you really are an outstanding contemporary. The NA was likewise to have taken part in In August we showed the anarchists what for — they ran like hares —!
The reds and anarchists must be driven from the streets!
Meaning of "Schaumschläger" in the German dictionary
The march was ultimately banned and 2, people demonstrated in Bayreuth against the ban. On 8 September Irving had been asked to hold a speech in Neuss a meeting of the Neuss branch of the Association of Expellecs [Bund der Vertriebenen], an invitation he accepted. The invitation was cancelled when the city hall in Neuss threatened to cancel the contract for the hall if Irving appeared as a speaker.
French National T. Manfrid Dreher. Dreher has lost the town hall, moved the venue to a restaurant in nearby village. Spoke there, late, for two hours. Good atmosphere… The importance of the revisionist campaign in is substantiated by the various VSBs, both on the federal and state levels.
They noted that the revisionist campaign had become enmeshed in neo-Nazi strategies to widen their political influence, especially in eastern Germany and to initiate a new Neo-Nazi movement in Germany. The so-called revisionists intensified their endeavour to spread their opinions that no crimes were committed, certainly not the Holocaust which is a propaganda lie put about by the victorious Allies of World War II.
Irving was in Germany at least four times in ; from 13[? Again diary entries are missing, namely the entries for February 24 to March 22, and 10 and 11 partially May. Gerd Sudholt, Dr. Michael Koll, and Andreas Jahrow. In the process he ruminated on the day-to-day problems in Germany. This was the job of Harder for example, or the people around the NPD, DVU, Republicans, and the independent national-conservatives, entities that could attract older people who paid an entry fee.
Worch added that the project had an important role for NL. For instance an event with Fred Leuchter would be too dangerous for them. If Irving had any scruples about the politics of his role, he repressed them in appearing. In a report on the speech Dr. Michael Koll reported Irving as having said,. On 19 March Irving would appear to have tried to speak in Ausburg, at a meeting arranged by Michael Swierczek. During there had been new attempts to organize a bigger neo-Nazi camp, that would also include members of the Republicans, the NPD, and others.
Independently of this the number of members and sympathisers has approximately tripled. So everything is getting better. As part of their campaign to profile themselves in the forthcoming Berlin local elections a big rally was organized for the 9 May , the day after the anniversary of the unconditional surrender of The venue was provocatively to be the former communist museum dedicated to the surrender in Berlin-Karlshort. Ultimately the rally was cancelled. This would seem to have been for a number of reasons, not all of them to do with Irving. After a total defeat in the local elections, the strategy of the Nationals was altered and a decision was made to expand through decentralization and to concentrate on recruitment of youngsters.
The diary record for 10 and 11 May is mostly missing. A journalist for the Independent suggested that Irving spoke in Poland instead, and was then off to Auschwitz. The leaflet gave no topic. I am furious. Here the manager whose staff had told us last night there was no problem, we could set up at 3 p.
Klaus Ewald arrived, got nowhere with them either. So we headed for the alternative venue [venue] at Herrenberg, 22km away. The Kripo [criminal police] arrived 5 minutes later, and in due course they banned the mee[ti]ng there. Meetings only in private circles with the registration of a topic which is not contestable. Five meetings in the FRG, all cancelled by the police. On 17 May disaster struck again for Irving in Schliersee where he had been booked to speak by Althans. Arrived at Schliersee Bahnhof p. They of course knew nothing of my planned presence.
Kripo knew more than they did. The people at tables cheered as I walked in, but organiser confirmed to me that the police ban made it impossible for them to let me speak, as they depended on the town to let them have the hall each year…So it looks like the fifth meeting this tour is also K. Five events all banned by the police with different excuses. I have Mr. Althans, better said the NO to thank for that. The two weeks costs: 12,,— brought nothing in. Everything banned, mostly caused through stupidity. Obviously not the politics of such groups, but their lack of organisational skills was what disturbed Irving.
As in and the VSBs noted Irving repeatedly participating at neo-Nazi meetings, presenting his revisionist statements. Sometime between May an international meeting was organised by Christophersen, which Irving would have appeared to have agreed to attend, if the event had not been cancelled because of adverse publicity. Backed up an hour later by warning that if I read it out I would be arrested. Ten minutes later a Kriminalkommissar [police officer] Wolf of the Staatsschutz [security service] and a female officer arrived brandishing a thick envelope containing two copies of a 33pp.
Aufenthaltsverbot [residency ban] issued against me and date stamped today, November 9. I read it through at leisure, and heard him remark that he had something even grimmer to do or hand me as soon as I had read it. He sent the female out to get it; I nonchalently said I would of course have to phone my lawyer Herrmann, and rose to get his number from the car.
Wiesel turned up and I took him round the block then in car. It was obvious to me, the police intended to serve on me the latest Strafbefehl [summary sentence] personally, or perhaps even arrest me Leuchter is still in jail! Back in London. The OPC differentiates between a wider and narrower radical version of revisionism. The wider concept includes all right-wing extremist attempts to relativise NS.
In the s the revisionist campaign led to a sharpening of these laws. Subsequently the law was altered in so that the state could initiate action on the part of the plaintiff. But as of summer you increasingly appeared at meetings of right-wing extremist groups, especially also in the new Federal states. Well what I do and say in Germany unfortunately does violate the law in Germany. I am well aware of that. And I go round from meeting place to meeting place in Germany now quite voluntarily sticking my neck out, because Germany is one of the most difficult places in the world to speak now.
Ulrich Harder was not so glib. He wrote to Irving explaining to him why he had excluded the television teams Irving had brought with him to a meeting in Harburg the night before, and what such a ban might entail. You will hopefully have seen [in the action] I have not argued with the cause but legally. At the moment one does not get anywhere with the CAUSE itself, only with false application of the law.
Without resistance the authorities could become over confident. That would damage you as regards the freedom of movement in Germany. Irving claimed that his speech was not political but scholarly [Wissenschaftlich] and that the ban infringed his rights as embodied in the civil code [Grundrecht] Article 5, Paragraph 3 protecting freedom of scientific research and teaching.
Even if the speech had been political he was protected by Article 5, Paragraph 1 ensuring freedom of expression. The court ruled that Irving had intended in his speech to influence public political opinion. The thoughts of your like-minded audience can be further stimulated so that they express Nazi opinions in public, vociferously repeat slogans for a revival of Nazi rule.
His speeches are not the mere representation of historical events. The statements the plaintiff makes, especially those in which he refers to the so-called Leuchter Report, are primarily intended to supply points of argument to those social groups in the Federal Republic whose aim is a renewed spreading of National Socialist thought. You offer the psuedo-scientific background which provides right-wing extremist groups a legitimacy and in addition is meant to allow them to convince those who are generally openly disposed to right-wing theses, but faced with the crimes of the National Socialists are lost for arguments, of their ideas.
In calling the racial murder by the National Socialists a lie, he [Irving] deprives the Jews the inhuman fate that they exposed too merely because of their origins. The tendency to free National Socialism from the stigma of the murder of the Jews is very clearly apparent in the plaintiff. Irving appealed again on 25 June , calling for the original ban to be declared unlawful and the court ruling of 25 May to be changed. The court concluded that because of numerous judgements Irving was well aware of legal sanctions against the public denial of the Holocaust, and that his continued statements despite this allowed the conclusion that he was conscious of the degrading character of his opinions.
Irving was arrested during the investigation and later that night freed on bail. Originally the investigation against Irving had been because of his part in the demonstration [Verstoss gegen das Versammlungsgesetz]. It is correct that he [Irving] said that Auschwitz was a dummy. Auschwitz gas chambers were built in Poland for the tourists. Schmidt declared himself willing to appear as a witness. At some point in this preliminary investigation then became one for defamation and reveiling the memory of the dead [Beleidigung und Verunglimpfung des Andenkens Verstorbener].
On 17 July the court found against Irving and issued a summary award of punishment [Strafbefehl]. As guilty of defaming the memory of the dead Irving was fined in absetia DM 7, Because the German taxpayers have had to pay a complete 13 thousand-million German marks as a punishment for Auschwitz…for a dummy. Irvings lawyer von Sprenger duly appealed against the fine on 21 August Despite ominous warnings that the facts of the Holocaust were regarded as manifest or evident [Offenkundig], and that German courts would accept no witnesses or documents to the contrary, Irving was eager to try and capitalize on the trial.
I presume that a court no longer investigates evidence if a gassing took place in Auschwitz or not.
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The court will see this as a irreversible fact. Franciszek Piper. Philipp seems to have an eager young publisher with some money and expert television crews and equipment interested in going back there to Auschwitz, Majdanek etc.