Learning On Demand: How the Evolution of the Web Is Shaping the Future of Learning
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Last year, the first part of the workshop was primarily for the terms and translation of the diagnostic questions. IRRI claims that the Filipino translated Rice Doctor is the stepping stone for the translation and localization of a diagnostic tool for the country-specific crop problems. Currently, these are also being done in other countries such as Bangladesh and India. The most recent mobile application that PhilRice has come up with is the "e-Damuhan" application, an app which allows farmers to identify, target, and kill weeds in their crops by simply scanning any suspicious-looking plant.
According to PhilRice's information systems researchers, the app has a comprehensive built-in catalogue which then helps the app identify weed species. As of the moment, "e-Damuhan" is being further developed, with researchers hoping that the app gets to further broaden its current catalogue of weed species while also allowing it to have the ability to recognize weeds via multiple specimen photos. The use of ICT in weather forecasting is broad.
Weather forecasting offices use mass media to inform the public on weather updates. After tropical storm Ondoy in the Philippines, the Filipino people are more curious and aware about the weather hazards. Meteorological offices are also using advanced tools to monitor the weather and the weather systems that may affect a certain area. Monitoring devices include: . In Africa, flood is one of the major concerns of farmers. The International Water Management Institute launched the mobile services for flood management, specifically in East Sudan.
These mobile services are considered as a next-generation ICT for weather and water information. The tool converts complex satellite sensor information to simple text messages which are sent to farmers informing them about the optimum use of flood water for crop production. The text messages would also warn the farmers about the flood events which would help them prepare their fields and advise on how to mitigate flood damage in estimating the risk of future flood events.
Climate change is a global phenomenon affecting the lives of people. In times of calamities, information and communication technology is needed for disaster management. Various organisations, government agencies and small and large-scale research projects have been exploring the use of ICT for relief operations, providing early warnings and monitoring extreme weather events. NetHope is another global organization which contributes disaster management and awareness through information technology. According to ICTandclimatechange. In when Typhoon Haiyan hit the Philippines, the CDAC network utilized different technologies to coordinate and communicate efforts between the affected communities and the different network's volunteer organizations.
CDAC saw the value of communication in responding to the disaster. They emphasized getting accurate and timely information as being crucial to saving lives. One of the organizations and tools that they tapped was the Digital Humanitarian Network. The Digital Humanitarian Network is a group of organizations with various tools that contribute to crisis mapping.
These tools were used to manage information that are received about the disaster. The tools they use allow them to monitor media—including social media, create live crisis maps, analyze the data they have, etc. The website collates information regarding earthquake preparedness. This was created in response to a predicted earthquake, expected to hit Metro Manila with a 7. According to DOST, NOAH's mission is to undertake disaster science research and development, advance the use of cutting edge technologies, and recommend innovative information services in government's disaster prevention and mitigation efforts.
Through the use of science and technology and in partnership with the academe and other stakeholders, the DOST through Project NOAH is taking a multi-disciplinary approach in developing systems, tools, and other technologies that could be operationalized by government to help prevent and mitigate disasters. OpenRDI aims to minimize the effect of disaster in developing countries by encouraging them to open their disaster risk data.
GIS technologies such as satellite imagery , thematic maps, and geospatial data play a big part in disaster risk management. One example is the HaitiData , where maps of Haiti containing layers of geospatial data earthquake intensity, flooding likelihood, landslide and tsunami hazards, overall damage, etc. Government, non-government and other organizations are encouraged to use ICT as a tool for protecting environment and developing sustainable systems that save natural resources, to implement green computing and to establish surveillance systems to forecast and monitor natural and man-made disasters.
In Satkhira, Bangladesh, wherein the rise of sea levels, unpredictable rain and fog, and changing of climate occurs - Sushilan, a local NGO, has helped in relieving problems related to climate changes. They have created ICT-based plant clinics employing agricultural extension workers, called "plant-doctors", that would help farmers with their queries. They have provided different ICTs, namely: mobile phones, computers and internet, digital cameras and microscope, and multimedia - to establish climate resilient agricultural practices.
Mobile phones were used by farmers to contact the plant doctors about their issues. Digital cameras and microscope are being used to record pests, plants, water levels, soil condition, and also record the problems of the farmers. Plant doctors also use multimedia to educate farmers through video presentations of different agricultural topics. Further, computers and internet, through the use of software - such as MS Office and Pallithaya - has helped in creating a database that allowed plant doctors to keep track of the problems that have occurred and are occurring for farmers, and the solution they could provide.
Subsequently, they use google maps and GIS to identify the location of the farmers and use it as a guide in resistance to the climate and climate change vulnerabilities that are known in the area. The project has helped citizens to recognize and map out areas that are most prone to climate change and has assisted in improving their knowledge of available resources in their area, and ways on how to adapt to climatic changes.
In Vietnam, the adaptation of ICT to environmental planning was used to solve the increasing problems with landslide and erosion aggravated by climate change. A participative and integrative approach was followed in creating the plan.
Learning on Demand: Evolution of Technology and the Future of Learning
GIS Mapping of areas prone to erosion and landslide was done and planting of Lo O a type of bamboo plant was proposed to stop land degradation. A GIS model for location selection for Lo O bamboo planting was combined with the map of danger areas for erosion and landslide to create prioritized planting areas. The Lo O plantation map was produced then was physically verified if it's suitable.
The final adaptation plan was completed by the research group and farmer representatives after the final check was integrated to the GIS model building. While livelihood systems may mostly be readily available in a certain household, it still depends on whether larger units such as the local and national government's can implement it properly.
Assets, institutions, and infrastructures to be used will be provided for by the unit which has a better capacity in implementing ICT4D technologies. This could not be realized in a household alone. There could be a knowledge about climate change adaptation and on how ICT can help in diminishing the problems it causes. However, without any systematic input and implementation from the government, it will face many hurdles that will make it impossible to implement. To create a more accurate and larger picture of how ICT can help in resolving climate change, the focus must be on the efforts of the national government rather than the actions and efforts of each household or community.
ICT as information, communication, and technology, provides three key aspects for influencing the education sector to develop the capacity for improving the influx of data that comprises one's learning curve. This provides alternative solutions to the obstacles encountered in the conventional educational system. Interventions almost always include the provision of computers, necessary software and internet connection, and curriculum development, industrial design, content creation and literacy training and capacity building on the use of technologies, establishment of information systems HR, Management and Financial.
Information and Communications Technology for Education or ICT4E as sector of ICT4D is an initiative that addresses issues and challenges regarding education of children and adults, especially in the developing countries. The use of Information and Communication Technologies ICTs play a vital role in promoting and making developments in terms of enhancing and ensuring the quality of education that the students receive and acquire.
It has multiple impacts on student achievements and motivations, including but not limited to: confidence in computer usage, increased autonomy when learning, improved development in language and communication skills. The purpose of ICT in education is to bridge the gap and promote online learning and interactive experience to students regardless of location in sharing ideas and information using different platforms of communication. ICT can improve the quality of education and bring better outcomes by making information easily accessible to students, helping to gain knowledge and skill easily and making training more available for teachers.
The Hole in the Wall is an experiment and a project done by Dr. Sugata Mitra  that focused on giving access to technology to children to improve computer literacy and learning in an unsupervised environments - Minimally Invasive Education MIE. University of the Philippines Open University UPOU coined ODeL to refer to an education that uses various technologies for both synchronous and asynchronous communication for learners and instructors virtually.
By maximizing the use of technology to create a wide range of learning, UPOU promotes lifelong learning in a more convenient way. In the Philippines, there are keynotes that have been forwarded to expand the definition of ICT4E from an exclusive high-end technology to include low-end technology; that is, both digital and analog. Further, ICT4E in the Philippines does not only focus on students but also on the development of Filipino teachers and computer laboratory managers.
In addition, are training initiatives for computer laboratory managers on a Web-based learning management system. Many current initiatives to improve global, regional and national literacy rates use ICT, particularly mobile phones and SMS. For example, in India a project titled "Mobile Learning Games for English as Second Language Literacy" aimed to enhance the literacy sub-skills of boys and girls in low-income rural areas and in urban slums via mobile game-based learning of English in non-formal, formal and informal education contexts.
If mobile phones could encourage illiterate traders to become partially literate, how useful would it be to incorporate mobile phones in adult literacy classes? In Senegal, "The Jokko Initiative" provided participants the opportunity to practice basic literacy skills via SMS messaging during an ongoing non-formal literacy component offered as part of an overall Community Empowerment Program CEP. Participants also made use of digital and visual literacy skills linking mobile phone menu features with visual symbols and signs related to mango picking—a common community livelihood practice.
The overall Somali community empowerment programme has been documented as boosting job training and placement for 8, young people women and men. Tests before and after showed statistically significant improvement in skills, with the youth livelihoods programme being linked to job placements. In Pakistan, the BUNYAD Literacy Community Council BLCC launched the Mobile Rickshaw Libraries initiative in - a mobile library service that aims to promote reading habits among young people and adults, in response to the country's growing problem with students dropping out of school, and adults not getting opportunities to practice reading.
It also supports women's empowerment by hosting reading materials that would strengthen the literacy skills of their female population. This projects uses ICTs and other e-learning materials - the rickshaw libraries have laptops and multimedia screens, and use educational websites such as eLearn. Some of the educational materials are downloaded in advance, so people can still use them on the available laptops even without internet connections. As of July , the initiative has already reached 6, students and adult women.
In Philippines, on the aspect of gender empowerment particularly for breastfeeding mothers, social media is used in order to disseminate effective and proper ways of increasing one's breast milk supply. ICTs can be a supportive tool to develop and serve with reliable, timely, high-quality and affordable health care and health information systems and to provide health education, training and improve health research. This is approximately million people wherein three out of every four are living in developing countries, half are of working age, half are women and the highest incidence and prevalence of disabilities occurs in poor areas.
At the international level, there are numerous guiding documents impacting on the education of people with disabilities such as Universal Declaration of Human Rights , moving to the Convention against Discrimination in Education , the Convention on the Rights of the Child , the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities CRPD includes policies about accessibility, non-discrimination, equal opportunity, full and effective participation and other issues.
Although these do not specifically mention the right to access ICT for people with disabilities, two key elements within the MDGs are to reduce the number of people in poverty and to reach out to the marginalised groups without access to ICT. Moreover, ICT can give everyone the access of global information about health and medication that would educate everyone more about anything in this field, but most importantly, ICT can also spread awareness to the youth and younger generations through the use of internet.
It can be any of the following types: . Business-to-business or B2B — buying and selling between businesses or companies using enterprise e-commerce platforms in a closed environment. Business-to-consumer or B2C — traditional retail model conducted over the internet. Consumer-to-consumer or C2C — consumers trade, buy, and sell products and services online. Consumer-to-business or C2B — consumers sells products and services to businesses online.
Business-to-government or B2G — businesses whose sole clients are governments. Barriers to e-Commerce adoption in developing countries  based on Barriers to ecommerce in developing countries by Japhet E. Lawrence, PhD and Usman A. Tar, PhD. The growth of e-Commerce is very high in developed and developing countries but it is curbed due to infrastructural, socio-cultural, socio-economic, and political and governmental barriers.
ICTs, when employed correctly, can be effectively used to aid political development. Often, this progress is achieved by strengthening the cooperation between the government and its citizens, commonly done through interaction. Government agencies, sectors, and organizations take advantage of ICTs to establish and maintain an online presence — a factor that is crucial to information-based societies where the majority of information is accessed, generated and shared via the internet. The specific purposes mentioned in each stage above indicate the convenience, efficiency, and security that ICTs provide.
Moreover, it depicts how to maximize these benefits by implementing interactive features. As a result, the government is able to reach out further to its citizens. It can answer to their needs in a more transparent, speedy, and cost-effective way. New forms of technology, such as social media platforms, provide spaces where individuals can participate in expressions of civic engagement. Researchers are now realizing that activity such as Twitter use " Social Networking Sites SNS are indispensable for it provides a venue for civic engagement for its users to call attention to issues that needs action because of the nature of social media platforms as an effective tool in disseminating information to all its users.
Social media can also be used as a support venue for solving problems and also a means for reporting criminal activity or calamity issues that affects the well being of communities. Social media is also used for inciting volunteerism by letting others know of situations in places that requires civic intervention and organize activities to make it happen. Civic engagement plays a large part in e-government, particularly in the area of Transparency and Accountability.
ICTs are used to promote openness in the government as well as a platform for citizens to report on anomalous government activities for the purpose of reducing corruption and in promoting efficiency. Even before the advent or popularity of social media platforms, internet forums were already present. Here, people could share their concerns about pertinent topics to seek solutions. In third-world countries like the Philippines, the text brigade is an easy method for informing and gathering people for whatever purpose.
The e-government action plan includes applications and services for ensuring transparency, improving efficiency, strengthening citizen relations, making need-based initiatives, allocating public resources efficiently and enhancing international cooperation. Writing about ICTs for government use in , W. Howard Gammon can be credited as writing the first e-government research paper. Though not mentioning the word "e-government", his article "The Automatic Handling of Office Paper Work" tackled tactics regarding government processes and information systems or electronic machinery.
In the Philippines, the administration now uses social media to converse more with its citizens for it makes people feel more in touch with the highest official in the land. Mirandilla-Santos, it has been suggested from research in the Philippines, that an average citizen does not actively seek information about politics and government, even during an election campaign. Civic engagement through social media also takes the shape of political blogs. However, in some cases, particularly for the Philippines, it was disputed that those political bloggers only represent an elite few, not a common representation of the populace, nor various representations.
Political bloggers in the Philippines were generally of a specific demographic, mostly young males, 25—34 years old, Metro-Manila based, with a college level education and making a high income. According to Mary Grace P. Information and Communication Technology ICT have proved its usefulness and influence to different businesses all around the world.
Communication became easier and work became more time-efficient. Businesses used ICT to enhance and develop their systems in terms of recording, processing, analyzing, and producing different files and data simultaneously. It made a big impact and change on how businesses keep up with the trends and demands of a fast-changing and competitive digital world. Tourism industry takes advantage of the beneficial use of information and communication technology to cater their market through e-commerce.
A journal entitled, "E-Tourism: The role of ICT in tourism industry", enumerated several ways how e-commerce is expected to benefit economic development in tourism industry. These are:. Most companies around the world look critically at their business travel management processes. Technology has a strategic role in reshaping the value chain in the industry and in the process, consumers are gradually adapting to the new values, lifestyles and new tourism products, which has re-engineered by the new technologies.
Although some of the technologies described are now obsolete, the implicit message is relevant and gives an overall review of the changing face of the tourism industry. The ITU commitment to close the digital gender gap is installed in the Agenda, the Addis Ababa Action plan develop gender-responsive strategies and policies, ensure access and mitigate online threats, build content and services that meet women's needs, promote women in the technology sector in decision-making positions, and establish multi-stakeholder partnerships.
Opeolu Akinola, the President of Nigerian Association of the Blind, says "Accessibility is ensuring that all the people in the society can access available resources irrespective of disability, which means that persons with disability can participate and have the same choice as non-disabled community members. ICT is a great aid in improving the lives of PWDs by enlarging the opportunities that will be available for them particularly in terms of social, cultural, political and economic integration in certain communities.
The UNESCO advocates the concept of knowledge societies which includes the promotion of the rights and needs of PWDs and enrich them with the effective use of ICTs which are accessible, adaptive and affordable by raising global awareness on disability rights, developing innovative ICT solutions, building inclusive or assistive technologies for accessibility, designing proper frameworks and tools, and to contribute to the implementation of UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. ICT improves the status of education in the world and it is now the most convenient tool for the said field.
Assistive technologies AT open the students with sensory impairments such as visual, hearing, physical, cognitive impairments, and speech-language and learning impairments to the opportunity to participate and enjoy the educational process with special techniques, treatment and equipment. In addition, it helps the PWDs to further have employment opportunities. An information society where everyone can access, utilize, create and share information and knowledge that will aid the people to achieve their full potential and will aid the society to progress.
It is highlighted on their policy page that: "Digital technology can help older people to stay healthy, independent and active at work or in their community for longer and it helps to improve our quality of life. In fact, a group of researchers studied how the program affects the outlook on quality of life of the senior citizens involved in the program.
The research had experimental and control groups wherein the former found an increased mean on quality of life after undertaking the program. One of the prominent results was their satisfaction with health and well-being benefits of ICT utilization. The impact of climate change, energy policies, and the rising of food prices are a few of the reasons why food insecurity happens. The rapid growth of population results to the rise of consumers; agricultural land decreases due to residential and industrial development—all of these contribute to food shortage.
Hence, ICT prioritizes e-Agriculture where food security issues will be addressed. ICTs can contribute to agro-food sustainability transition by increasing resource productivity, reducing inefficiencies, decreasing management costs, and improving food chain coordination. For developed countries, other technologies used are GIS Geographic information system and GPS global positioning system in precision and site specific agriculture.
Gov, these technologies enable the coupling of real-time data collection with accurate position information, leading to the efficient manipulation and analysis of large amounts of geospatial data. GPS-based applications in precision farming are being used for farm planning, field mapping, soil sampling, tractor guidance, crop scouting, variable rate applications, and yield mapping. GPS allows farmers to work during low visibility field conditions such as rain, dust, fog, and darkness.
Results of the research show how the government and its policies in utilizing modern communication techniques to mobilize their Agriculture department have been successful in decreasing inefficiency of agriculture farms in Punjab. Short messaging service or SMS will serve as a way for the farmers to receive daily weather forecasts and updates in market prices. On the other hand, establishing comprehensive databases will serve as a way for the food supplies in every country to be monitored systematically.
Stronger and more reliable communication between the producers, traders, and consumers is accessible through ICT—food supplies would be more dependable and there would be a decrease in food loss. ICT is also instrumental in decreasing agricultural management costs. Another approach is the Modern Agricultural Technologies which enhance agricultural production and sustainability. The application of biotechnology could develop and increase crops besides climate changes and unwanted circumstances during the rainy season which will lead to food security.
The expansion of ICT can have direct negative outcomes. Expenditure on ICT has been known to cause intra-household conflict, foster male dominance over resources and divert household resources away from food and other essentials. Human right concerns such as child labor have also been raised over the use of conflict materials in the production of ICT devices.
In many impoverished regions of the world, legislative and political measures are required to facilitate or enable the application of ICTs, especially with respect to monopolistic communications structures and censorship laws. The literacy issue is one of the key factors why projects fail in rural areas; as education in literacy sets the foundation for digital and information literacy , proper education and training are needed to make the user at least understand how to manipulate the applications to get the information they need.
Constant follow-up with the community is needed to monitor if the project has been successfully implemented and is being used meaningfully. In the case of India, technological advancement has been more leapfrogging in nature: the affordability of mobile phones allowed more people to acquire mobile phones before learning to use personal computers and desktops. This unfamiliarity with computers could be seen as problematic as it creates digital divide if technological devices provided are computers; a disconnect between computing technology and people causes difficulty for some of the ICT4D project initiatives to take effect.
For instance, in rural parts of India, the Ministry of Education rejected OLPC initiative  due to lack of facilities and trained professionals for computer teaching and maintenance. While closing the gap of digital divide through training teachers so that technology may be used for the teaching process is challenging, there is yet another problem of failing to recognize technology as a tool for the learning process.
Projects in marginalized rural areas face the most significant hurdles — but since people in marginalized rural areas are at the very bottom of the pyramid , development efforts should make the most difference in this sector. ICTs have the potential to multiply development effects  and are thus also meaningful in the rural arena. However, introducing ICTs in these areas is also most costly, as the following barriers exist: . Another significant problem can be the selection of software installed on technology  — instructors trained in one set of software for example Ubuntu  can be expected to have difficulty in navigating computers donated with different software for example Windows XP.
A pressing problem is also the misuse of electronic waste in dangerous ways. Burning technology to obtain the metals inside will release toxic fumes into the air. These practices cost the health of communities, affecting the respiratory and immune system. Presence of harmful chemicals is stuck on soils like lead, mercury, and cadmium. Developing countries are forced to labor on these waste to get money. Certification of recyclers to e-stewards or R2 Solutions standards is intended to preclude environmental pollution. Finally, while the training, support, hardware, and software may all be donated, it is rare for another vital component of technology, Internet access, to be made available at a discounted rate.
These negative impacts are observable but the platforms to identify, measure, analyze, and address them are insufficient. This is exacerbated by the idea that ICT only provides benefits to society. As new ICT practices are introduced, new challenges tag after them. However, conceiving policies to minimize the negative impacts requires time and resources. Conceptualization of effective and definite measures to counter these negative impacts is in the development stage as part of future priorities.
Crucial in making any ICT4D effort successful is an effective partnership between four key stakeholders:. InfoDev has published six lessons from an analysis of 17 of their pilot programmes see below. These lessons are backed by a variety of examples as well as a list of recommendations: . Currently, the main two perspectives coming out of this sector are to emphasize the need for external aid to build infrastructure so that projects can reach viability, and the need to develop and build on local talent.
Establishing a clear and effective initial design serves as a foundation of any development projects. Starting on existing community assets and knowledge promotes collaboration and cooperation among participants resulting to collective decision-making. Thus, involvement of potential participants in the design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation is valuable.
Adding a substantial effect on a project's long-term sustainability is the implementation. The success of project implementation is reflected in a comprehensive evaluation of the expected net benefits. The interdependence between these project components based on a holistic consideration of livelihood systems, needs and opportunities, provides significant contribution to the overall impact of the project on the community.
A growing perspective in the field is also the need to build projects that are sustainable and scalable, rather than focusing on those which must be propped up by huge amounts of external funding and cannot survive for long without it. Sustaining the project's scalability is a huge challenge of ICT for development; how the target user will continue using the platform.
ICT4D is not a one-shot implementation but rather it is a complex process to be undertaken continuously, and the progress of each project evolves around the local education for, and adaptability of, the technology. Also, a number of developing countries have proven their skills in IT information technology. Using these skills to build on ICT4D projects will tap local potential and a key indigenous partner in the growth of this sector will be gained.
The balance of trade for these nations due to imports in both hardware and software might be an additional consideration. Different countries have a variety of these strengths some are better in hardware production, both high end and low end. There are some who are good in the production of programs and other content. Communication, media and IT present opportunities for further growth and expansion. In , the UN Development Program and the UN Development group postulated a set of 17 goals whose ultimate goal is to transform the world into a better one with emphasis to developing countries.
Some of the goals included are aims to end extreme hunger, poverty, and gender inequality. Poverty is not only just the manifestation due to one's lack of sustainable development. It's not just a lack of income, it's also the lack of one's access to health, education and all other basic services due to their current situation. ICT4D hopes not only to bridge the digital gap, but it also hopes to provide opportunities and enhance the people's capabilities so they could pull themselves out of their own situation. It doesn't only give jobs so that people could work for money, it offers a path for a better future, a future where the vulnerable people has access to equal economic opportunities and other basic services.
That kind of growth seeks to build a society that can provide well-paying jobs and promote equality. We cannot physically change the location of conflict-ridden areas or disaster-prone areas, but most people are now utilizing ICT to fight off this problem. A young person can spread the ideas that can change other's point of view.
The government can help create an environment that would generate employment and job opportunities for the marginalized. The private sector, on the other hand, works as a major player as they continued to contribute to their country's economic growth that targets to include those who belong in the poor or the informal sector while the Academic and the education community works to increase awareness about the impact of poverty as well as finding more ways to move through the challenges and fight of poverty and achieve sustainable development.
Hunger is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Hence, one indicated goals of SDGs is to end all types of hunger and malnutrition by the year To do this, they ensure that all individuals will have an adequate amount of nutritious food throughout the year by means of promoting food security and agriculture sustainability with the incorporation of ICT and other advancements.
Through ICT, farmers can gain access to information systems that provide content such as weather forecasts, trading information and training courses that are tailored to their needs. By , end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular, the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round. By , end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by , the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons.
By , double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment.
By , ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality. By , maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed.
Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries. Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round.
Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility. ICTs have the potential to bring the medical personnel and their patients closer wherever they may be. Patients can remotely contact healthy care services for help. Health care workers can run tests that would otherwise be impossible without the help of ICTs such as conducting remote diagnostic check-up of their patients and prescribing treatment solutions.
Analyzing all of these data in a large scale would help in analyzing trends, create forecasts about disease outbreaks, improving traditional and ICT-based health services and more.
Children age 5 years and below are mostly suffering from stunting, with an estimate of million worldwide. By monitoring the progress of identified children who are in risk of malnutrition, open communication and receiving real-time data between government agencies and volunteers aid to formulate a sustainable solution to stunting. Education is where a citizen is prepared. There are also smart systems that analyze the learning pattern of the student which it uses in constructing individual learning plans as maximized pedagogy. The implementation of the use of ICT in education is highly encouraged by the European Commission in their E-Learning Action Plan wherein one of their goals are, "to improve the quality of learning by facilitating access to resources and services as well as remote exchange and collaboration".
Access to ICT helps women in understanding the importance of their productive and reproductive roles in the society at the local community, government and global level. Women can be empowered as economic, social and political actors by providing new space and opportunity where they can contribute to the community. These opportunities can be in form of advocacy, ICT-based entrepreneurship or other community development activities through ICT. Contaminated water and inadequate sanitation accounts to more than , deaths annually.
ICTs can provide ways for smarter water management such as automated systems handling the measurement and observation of the water supply and propose possible solutions and interventions based on the data gathered. ICTs can also be used to provide data to practitioners in the field enabling them to provide more water, sanitation and hygiene WASH services. Here are the opportunities and challenges that Information and Communication Technology should investigate more on and take consideration for.
Impact assessments related to water sanitation should be thoroughly reviewed by media practitioners for them create solutions for these issues. ICT-powered solutions such as smart electrical grids, smart homes and buildings, and automated industrial processes can be deployed to replace their inefficient counterparts towards usability and energy efficiency. ICTs are also being developed to create a lesser carbon-footprint so as to make them environmentally sound. ICTs are paving way for interested entities to conduct business virtually anywhere in the world.
Some of examples of these businesses are online education platforms, computing services and online boutiques. This creates a plethora of new employment opportunities which ultimately fosters market growth. ICT is a crucial tool in industrialization. In emerging information and knowledge societies, open access to academic research, online collaboration and optimization of ICT enable countries to provide infrastructures well-suited for knowledge-based societies such as power networks, transportation systems, water supplies and communication networks. ICTs can help reduce inequality within and between countries by providing knowledge to the disadvantaged section of the society such as those living with disabilities and women.
For example, to those who are visually challenged, there are now accessibility solutions that accept speech as input and output for computing operations. Interactive lectures can also be used to engage people into learning and developing their ICT skills with the goal of bridging the digital divide. City management can be done effectively with the help of ICTs. Innovative concepts such as smart buildings, smart waterworks facilities and intelligent transport systems not only provide increased work efficiency but also boasts a reduced energy consumption and waste impact.
Quayside, a part of Sidewalk Toronto, is a neighborhood project that utilizes the advancements in the field of ICT to develop a modern environment-friendly city with its own renewable energy system. It is meant to be a model for sustainable communities around the world. ICTs application help participate in the dematerialization and virtualization of materials such as the case of virtual receipts and electronic books replacing their paper-based counterparts.
Innovative ICT applications can also stimulate a sustainable consumption and production of resources. Some examples of these include smart grids, cloud computing and ICT-based power plants. ICTs such as satellite monitoring are critical in monitoring the earth, interacting with climate and weather information, generating forecasts and using results gathered to enable early warning systems. Besides monitoring the effects of climate change, ICTs also play a role in alleviating the effects of climate change by providing timely and accurate forecasting and early warning systems.
Private standard-setting organizations such as ISO contributed plans on climate change. One of them, the ISO , sets requirement for environmental management system EMS and obliges organizations to identify and systematically reduce any harmful effects it may have on the environment. Organizations must agree to practice energy saving, pollution control, waste management, and proper consumption of raw materials.
Utilization of ICTs can also pave the way to the conservation and responsible use of oceans and the marine resources that they hold. Satellite-based monitoring can improve overall monitoring and reporting efficiencies which results to increased liability. On a smaller scale, local sensors and other related systems can also deliver real-time updates to improve the accuracy and efficiency of data gathered from satellite-based monitoring. Big data from the monitoring activities can be analyzed to look for short and long-term trends in terms of pollution, weather patterns and migration cycles.
ICTs can play a role in the conservation of terrestrial ecosystems and prevention of biodiversity loss. Like on oceans and marine resources, global monitoring systems such as satellite-based monitoring can improve the monitoring efforts which would increase accountability. As a result, several illegal activities such as poaching and illegal wildlife trade can be alleviated through this way. Data gathered from the monitoring activities can be used to analyze trends in terms of biodiversity, changes in ecosystems as well as to plan mitigation efforts.
The portal aims to share verified environmental information to the public. One of the key feature of this portal is the ability of the public to interact with it by reporting environmental phenomena and illegal activities. ICTs can help in strengthening the accountability and reliability of institutions. The emerging trend of governments opening their data to the public increases transparency ratings, enables citizens and helps stimulate financial growth.
ICTs are also vital in areas such as monitoring and tracking government data and public demographics. ICTs are also important when natural or man-made disasters occur because it is responsible for retrieving, communicating and sending reliable and timely crisis information. This allows efficient and correct solutions to be carried out. In the future, analysis of big data can also pave way to accurate forecasting and early warning systems which would be open to anyone. But with the three pillars of sustainable development namely economic growth, social inclusion and environmental sustainability, it is no doubt needed in providing innovative and effective means of implementation in a global scale.
It helps in enhancing international coordination, multi-stakeholder partnerships, data monitoring and accountability. The Sustainable Development Goals is an opportunity for the world to work together to reach goals such as ending poverty, protecting the earth and ensuring prosperity for the planet.
Technology if used effectively will accelerate the SDG's task of reaching its goals. In order for SDGs to achieve their goals, changes are required of each sector. Development sectors like livelihood, agriculture, health, education, water, sanitation and power, infrastructure, disaster relief, government and human rights, environmental protection and crosscutting should achieve their goals of ending poverty by providing sustainable agriculture to ensure food security and improved nutrition for people to have healthy lives.
Sustainable management of water, sanitation and modern energy should be achieved as well as the construction of safe and resilient infrastructure for communities. Laws promulgating equal rights should also be achieved. Lastly, protection of the environment should be undertaken. ICT can address the needs and provide benefits to various organizations and individuals. These organizations include consumers, entrepreneurs or employees, businesses, government agencies and civil society organizations. ICT is at the forefront of development assistance and interventions to achieve poverty reduction and inclusive economic growth.
Goal 17 of SDGs emphasizes the importance of global partnership and cooperation through sharing knowledge and experiences to foster innovation. Improving access to knowledge and technology through ICT interventions is crucial to the achievement of this goal. However, there are a lot of challenges in implementing SDGs at it focuses on many aspects. Suggestions have been made on how the goals can be achieved at the desired timeline, such as decreasing cost in implementing ICT and increasing public awareness about ICT.
Another hindrance is the hierarchy of organizations. There are reports that some agencies are treated as higher than the other, thus, making the development slower. Also, though there are a lot of talented leaders, not all of them are exposed to the real situation. The most contributing factor is that once they are pushed to do something, most individuals and institutions focus on their own sectors, thus, not being able to have a collective mind towards one goal.
SDGs also have a huge territory; they focus on too many fields, making it slower for the development of ICT to happen. Though they focus on the most crucial needs of the people, the progression is not at par with their previous goals. SDGs have a long way to go with its goal to be reached by Improvements are still on its way but there are challenges that needs to be resolved to be able to move forward, by having a collective mind.
Moreover, during the s, a pattern showed that ICTs had a strong drop down the international development agenda. It may even fully disappear from the international development agenda. This is all because of some failures of ICT4D. These failures include: inability to become engaged with the twin colossi of development goals going forward; inability to grasp the meaning, concepts, and discourse in development; and inability to create a role for itself in sustainable and inclusive development. ICT4D should be able to solve these failures and do its tasks accordingly to be able to have a fitting place in the development agenda.
However, one cause for concern is from where should the research agenda be obtained and was presented with two options — the SDGs itself or from what is happening in the ICT world. A consensus was made and it shows that the research agenda must come from an in-depth knowledge of SDGs. It doesn't necessarily link ICT4D to every agenda but it provides a framework from which ICT4D can use as a guide to development planning and policy making.
The focus of Inclusive Innovation is on delivering high performance products and services or high experience at ultra-low cost to the people whose needs are generally not addressed. This inequality is the driving factor why the world is now looking into promoting inclusive innovation, i. Inclusive innovations may foster inclusion in production, in consumption, in the innovation process itself and by promoting the agency of the excluded.
As inclusion not only focuses to the low-income but also the marginalized, handicapped, and excluded due to location. Ensuring that development is not only felt by the fortunate few but eventually encompassing all. There are 5 guiding principles: . In spite of impressive technological advances and economic growth, an important share of the world's population does not have access to many of the innovations that improve the quality of life and that provide access to better income opportunitiesincluding basic goods and services such as food, shelter, health, safe water, and electricity.
By providing products and services of high quality at low cost, so that these innovations are applicable, affordable and available to the BOP, state and non-state actors can help address these challenges. Innovation in this sense does not only mean technological advancements but also means to bring these advancements to the people in need of it, most especially the ones that would benefit from it for their day to day living.
There has been a rapid rise of interest in inclusive innovation and its application to various spheres. India, Thailand, China, South Africa, Indonesia and other national governments have added inclusive innovation elements into their policies. Here we can view the two key aspects of how inclusive innovation plays: first, who are affected or included?
And second, what way they are included? First, the first part who are affected or included? The first part of key aspect is defined as someone is being affected or included in marginalized or poverty line. How these people are being included in some way, which can be redirected to the second key aspect, what way they are included? The most beneficial way to answer that is to comprehend the different perspectives in the "ladder of inclusive innovation", in a group of steps, which in every succeeding step illustrates a higher idea of inclusivity as related to how innovation works.
Below are the detailing of the steps: . ICTs has helped in expanding economic opportunity by giving the people the ability to enhance their knowledge and skills with the help of the internet. The most commonly employed learning modalities are: . Other commonly employed modalities include musical , interpersonal , verbal , logical , and intrapersonal. Dunn and Dunn  focused on identifying relevant stimuli that may influence learning and manipulating the school environment, at about the same time as Joseph Renzulli  recommended varying teaching strategies.
Howard Gardner  identified a wide range of modalities in his Multiple Intelligences theories. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter , based on the works of Jung ,  focus on understanding how people's personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects the way individuals respond to each other within the learning environment.
Some theories propose that all individuals benefit from a variety of learning modalities, while others suggest that individuals may have preferred learning styles, learning more easily through visual or kinesthetic experiences. Educational neuroscience is an emerging scientific field that brings together researchers in cognitive neuroscience , developmental cognitive neuroscience , educational psychology , educational technology , education theory and other related disciplines to explore the interactions between biological processes and education.
Several academic institutions around the world are beginning to devote resources to the establishment of educational neuroscience research. As an academic field, philosophy of education is "the philosophical study of education and its problems That is, it may be part of the discipline in the sense of being concerned with the aims, forms, methods, or results of the process of educating or being educated; or it may be metadisciplinary in the sense of being concerned with the concepts, aims, and methods of the discipline.
There is no broad consensus as to what education's chief aim or aims are or should be. Different places, and at different times, have used educational systems for different purposes. The Prussian education system in the 19th century, for example, wanted to turn boys and girls into adults who would serve the state's political goals. Some authors stress its value to the individual, emphasizing its potential for positively influencing students' personal development, promoting autonomy, forming a cultural identity or establishing a career or occupation. Other authors emphasize education's contributions to societal purposes, including good citizenship, shaping students into productive members of society, thereby promoting society's general economic development, and preserving cultural values.
The purpose of education in a given time and place affects who is taught, what is taught, and how the education system behaves. For example, in the 21st century, many countries treat education as a positional good. In formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses and their content offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin word for race course , referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults.
A curriculum is prescriptive and is based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard. An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university — or via some other such method. Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences , mathematics , computer science , social sciences , humanities and applied sciences.
Educational institutions may incorporate fine arts as part of K grade curricula or within majors at colleges and universities as electives. The various types of fine arts are music, dance, and theatre. The Sudbury Valley School offers a model of education without a curricula. Instruction is the facilitation of another's learning.
Instructors in primary and secondary institutions are often called teachers , and they direct the education of students and might draw on many subjects like reading , writing , mathematics , science and history. Instructors in post-secondary institutions might be called teachers , instructors, or professors , depending on the type of institution; and they primarily teach only their specific discipline. Studies from the United States suggest that the quality of teachers is the single most important factor affecting student performance, and that countries which score highly on international tests have multiple policies in place to ensure that the teachers they employ are as effective as possible.
A popular way to gauge teaching performance is to use student evaluations of teachers SETS , but these evaluations have been criticized for being counterproductive to learning and inaccurate due to student bias. He would show a the correct way to perform an action, b the incorrect way the player performed it, and again c the correct way to perform an action. This helped him to be a responsive teacher and fix errors on the fly. Also, less communication from him meant more time that the player could practice.
It has been argued that high rates of education are essential for countries to be able to achieve high levels of economic growth.
However, technology transfer requires knowledgeable managers and engineers who are able to operate new machines or production practices borrowed from the leader in order to close the gap through imitation. Therefore, a country's ability to learn from the leader is a function of its stock of " human capital ". Recent study of the determinants of aggregate economic growth have stressed the importance of fundamental economic institutions  and the role of cognitive skills.
At the level of the individual, there is a large literature, generally related to the work of Jacob Mincer ,  on how earnings are related to the schooling and other human capital. This work has motivated a large number of studies, but is also controversial. The chief controversies revolve around how to interpret the impact of schooling. Economists Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis argued in that there was a fundamental conflict in American schooling between the egalitarian goal of democratic participation and the inequalities implied by the continued profitability of capitalist production.
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Many countries are now drastically changing the way they educate their citizens. The world is changing at an ever quickening rate, which means that a lot of knowledge becomes obsolete and inaccurate more quickly. The emphasis is therefore shifting to teaching the skills of learning: to picking up new knowledge quickly and in as agile a way as possible.
Finnish schools have even begun to move away from the regular subject-focused curricula, introducing instead developments like phenomenon-based learning, where students study concepts like climate change instead. Education is also becoming a commodity no longer reserved for children. Adults need it too. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Education disambiguation. Learning in which knowledge and skills is transferred through teaching. Main article: History of education.
Main article: Early childhood education. Main article: Primary education.
Main article: Secondary education. See also: Higher education and Adult education. Main article: Vocational education. Main article: Special education. Main article: Alternative education. Main article: Indigenous education. Main article: Informal learning. Main article: Autodidacticism. Main article: Evidence-based education. Main articles: Open education and Educational technology. Main article: Education and technology. Main article: Educational theory. Main article: Educational psychology. Main article: Psychology of education. Main article: Philosophy of education.
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